Sartre's interventions at the Vienna, Berlin, and Helsinki Congresses of the World Peace Council are examined in depth. Neglected and overlooked for over a half-century, it is argued that the themes Sartre elaborated in these speeches were consonant with the political and intellectual projects he had been developing since the mid-1930s. Although Sartre spoke as a Marxist who had allied himself with the Communist Party, his deepest concern was to build international unity in opposition to the escalating threat of nuclear war, and to restore political and economic sovereignty to a Western Europe crushed by dependency on America. Freedom for all the world's peoples, Sartre argued, depended on mutual interdependence between nations, built from the ground up by the popular masses.
Some Senses of Pan-Africanism from the South
following the Berlin Congress), Rubusana and Jabavu both agreed, despite their differences, that African development could not rely on nonracialism in white institutions. Africans would have to unite to forge their own independent destiny. The South African
Jeremy F. Walton and Piro Rexhepi
, Greece, Serbia, and Romania has been well documented ( Blumi 2013 ; Kasaba 2009 ; Mazower 2002 , 2004 ). Those Muslims who remained were subject to a host of political transformations, beginning with the Berlin Congress that concluded the Russo