The global 'cosmopolitan' tiger, as opposed to the local 'Sundarbans tiger', has become the rallying point for urbanites' concerns for wildlife protection globally. In this piece, I look at two different representations of tigers in recent history, one colonial and the other national. This so as to highlight how representations, even of wild animals, are ultimately linked to power. This leads me to argue how today's Western-dominated ideas about tigers (a view I call 'cosmopolitan') ultimately act to the detriment of 'other' tigers because these do not allow for an engagement with alternative ways of understanding animals and wildlife. Such images, I try to show using Descola's arguments about nature and understandings of it, in turn perpetrates the coercive and unequal relationship between, in this case, those who partake of the 'cosmopolitan' tiger view versus those who live with 'wild' tigers.
Unmasking the Cosmopolitan Tiger
The Cosmopolitanism of Environmental Activists in Sri Lanka
This paper examines the emergence in Sri Lanka of transcultural thinking about environmental issues as well as the activism it engenders by examining the role of the Anglophone Sri Lankan elite as the chief protagonists historically of environmentalism in the country. It also examines one of Sri Lanka's leading NGOs, Environmental Foundation Ltd. (EFL) as an example of the activism of this class. EFL's perspective on environmental issues has its origins in the transformations wrought by colonialism in the country's class structure and in the introduction of European ideas of nature to the country's newly emergent middle-class. Modelled on the Natural Resources Defense Council of the United States, EFL was a new kind of environmental organization in Sri Lanka and a response to globalization and Sri Lanka's increasing integration into the global economy. Unlike the handful of environmental NGOS that existed in the late seventies, which were essentially pressure groups, EFL was conceived, on the model of NRDC, as a public interest law firm, and drew on international models to frame its arguments about the application of the law in the cause of environmental protection. This paper examines how these various factors—the social class of the activists and the processes of institution building—shaped a cosmopolitan environmental discourse in Sri Lanka whose roots lie in urban Sri Lankan middle class culture as it emerged and was transformed during colonial rule and in the various discourses of globalization that have been drawn on by Sri Lankan activists to craft their own arguments.
Social Encounters in the French Trenches
share the dangers and hardships of life in the front lines? For many former students from the bourgeoisie, trench warfare was an unprecedented experiment in social promiscuity: even if the republican regime had set up compulsory conscription in 1889
La modernité, invention médiatique
pouvoir à la bourgeoisie et aux puissances d’argent—lorsque, bien après l’Angleterre et les États-Unis, la France se met à l’heure du libéralisme économique et politique. Très vite, en particulier dans les milieux conservateurs ou réactionnaires, la
The Specificities of French Elites at the End of the Nineteenth Century
France Compared to Britain and Germany
Thanks to a comparison of social and educational characteristics of elites in France, Germany and UK at the end of the nineteenth century, this contribution shows the specificities of the French case: a mixture of persistent traditional elites, akin to British and German ones, and the growing domination of a more recent economic and meritocratic bourgeoisie pushing for liberalism and democracy. Nevertheless, evolutions in the same direction as France are also perceptible in the two monarchies and give birth to a new divergence when after WWI the democratization of elites go faster in UK and Germany than in France where the law bourgeoisie remain dominant and blocks the reforms asked by more popular or petit bourgeois groups present in the political parties on the left.
Marx et Durkheim
La mémoire d’Émile DURKHEIM a été très violemment attaquée en ces dernières années par de jeunes philosophes marxistesa, qui ne l’ont d’ailleurs pas connu personnellement et n’ont pas subi l’influence directe de son enseignement. René JOLY, dans une série d’articles sur « le prétendu matérialisme de DURKHEIM », le considère comme un représentant typique de la bourgeoisie, un défendeur de tous les privilèges capitalistes, l’auteur d’une philosophie qui porte un « caractère de classe ». À l’usage de ceux qui ont parlé d’un matérialisme durkheimien, il écrit.
Social Space, Technology, and Consumer Culture at the Grands Magasins Dufayel
The Grands Magasins Dufayel, a huge department store built on the northern fringe of late nineteenth-century Paris, had an important cultural influence on the city's working class. In a neighborhood with few public spaces, it provided a consumer version of the public square. It encouraged workers to approach shopping as a social activity, just as the bourgeoisie did at the famous department stores in central Paris. Like the bourgeois stores, it helped transform consumption from a personal transaction between customer and merchant into an unmediated relationship between consumer and goods. Through advertising the store portrayed itself as a space where the working-class visitor could participate in new and exciting forms of entertainment and technology. Its unique instore cinema and exhibits of inventions like X-ray machines and the gramophone created a new kind of urban space that celebrated the close relationship between technology and consumer culture.
'Our Table Factory, Inc.': Learning Marx through role play
Neda Maghbouleh, Clayton Childress, and Carlos Alamo-Pastrana
Marx's critique of capitalism remains foundational to the university social science curriculum yet little is known about how instructors teach Marx. In post-industrial, service-oriented economies, students are also increasingly disconnected from the conditions of industrial capitalism that animate Marx's analysis. Inspired by the discussion of how a piece of wood becomes a table in Marx's Capital Vol. 1., 'Our Table Factory, Inc.' simulates a diverse array of roles in the chain of production into and out of a table factory to understand key concepts: means/mode of production, use/exchange value, primitive accumulation wage/surplus labour, proletariat, bourgeoisie, alienation, false consciousness, commodity fetishism and communist revolution. We describe the exercise and present qualitative and quantitative assessment data from introductory sociology undergraduates across three small teaching-intensive universities in the United States. Findings detail the exercise's efficacy in fostering retention of material and in facilitating critical engagement with issues of inequality.
Sartre and May 1968: The Intellectual in Crisis
Conventional wisdom holds that the political evolution of an individual passes from youthful radicalism to the conservatism of later years. In this respect, as in many others, Sartre declined to follow the norm. As a young man, despite his detestation of the bourgeoisie, his anti-militaristic sentiments, his anti-authoritarianism and unconventional lifestyle, Sartre remained aloof from politics, while it was towards the end of his life that his most radical commitment occurred, triggered in large part by the events of May-June 1968. This paper will establish that although Sartre supported the 1968 student movement, he remained essentially outside it and it made little immediate impact on his thinking or practice; it was only several months later that the ‘events’ made themselves felt to Sartre, leading him to question the definition of himself as intellectual which he had defended hitherto.
Eleanor L. Pray's Vladivostok
A Portrait, 1894–1930
Birgitta M. Ingemanson
Eleanor Lord Pray (1868-1954), an American woman from New England, lived in Vladivostok from mid-1894 through 1930, and wrote letters to her friends and family in other parts of the world almost daily. She truthfully described her everyday life, scenes from the city and its surroundings, and the extraordinary historic events that occurred there. This Collection of more than 2,000 extant letters, illustrated with hundreds of photos from Mrs. Pray's albums, offers unique information about Old Vladivostok, its people and traditions, and contributes greatly to uncovering some of the history of the city's early bourgeoisie of Russian, German, Scandinavian, and American merchants, consuls, and officers. The Eleanor L. Pray Collection is owned by Patricia D. Silver of Sarasota, Florida.