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Tolerating the Conditionally Tolerant

The Uneasy Case of Salvation Religions

William A. Edmundson

small step from here to the corollary that those who blaspheme must shut up or be shut up. This is not to deny that the proximate motivation of present-day kamikazes often has more to do with “heroic and self-sacrificial dying,” as Bernard Williams

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The Lesson of Carl Schmitt’s Realism

The Autonomy and the Primacy of the Political

Attila Gyulai

Political realism claims that politics should be understood as politics and not as a derivative of any other field of human activity. While contemporary realists often argue for the autonomy of politics, this article suggests that only the primacy of politics can be the starting point of political realism. The aim of the article is to expose a conceptual deficiency, namely, the unclear difference between the autonomy and the primacy approach in contemporary realist theory by going back to Carl Schmitt’s contribution to political realism. It will be argued that Schmitt’s concept of the political foreshadowed the ambiguities of contemporary realist theory, exemplified by key authors such as Bernard Williams, Raymond Geuss and Mark Philp.

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David Hall

Climate action is conventionally framed in terms of overcoming epistemic and practical disagreement. An alternative view is to treat people’s understandings of climate change as fundamentally pluralistic and to conceive of climate action accordingly. This paper explores this latter perspective through a framework of philosophical psychology, in particular Bernard Williams’s distinction between internal and external reasons. This illuminates why the IPCC’s framework of ‘Reasons for Concern’ has an inefficacious relationship to people’s concerns and, hence, why additional reason giving is required. Accordingly, this paper recommends a model of truthful persuasion, which acknowledges the plurality of people’s motivations and sincerely strives to connect the facts of climate change to people’s subjective motivational sets.

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Derek Edyvane and Demetris Tillyris

‘The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing’. -Archilochus quoted in Berlin, The Hedgehog and the Fox, 22

The fragment from the Greek poet Archilochus, quoted in Isaiah Berlin’s essay ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox’, serves as a metaphor for the long-standing contrast and rivalry between two radically different approaches to public ethics, each of which is couched in a radically different vision of the structure of moral value. On the one hand, the way of the hedgehog corresponds to the creed of value monism, reflecting a faith in the ultimate unity of the moral universe and belief in the singularity, tidiness and completeness of moral and political purposes. On the other hand, the way of the fox corresponds to the nemesis of monism, the philosophical tradition of value pluralism, to which this collection of essays is devoted. This dissenting countermovement, which emerges most clearly in the writings of Isaiah Berlin, Stuart Hampshire, Bernard Williams and John Gray, is fuelled by an appreciation of the perpetuity of plurality and conflict and, correspondingly, by the conviction that visions of moral unity and harmony are incoherent and implausible. In the view of the value pluralists, ‘there is no completeness and no perfection to be found in morality’ (Hampshire 1989a: 177).

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Babies and Boomers

Intergenerational Democracy and the Political Epidemiology of COVID-19

Toby Rollo

condition as a politics of death: a “necropolitics.” It is difficult to dispute Mbembé's assessment. We find theoretical corroboration in the work of thinkers as diverse as Bernard Williams (1976) , Jeremy Walzer (1973) , Michel Foucault (2008) , and

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Bertjan Wolthuis

. Political Liberalism as an Interpretive Theory Political liberalism is portrayed by Bernard Williams as a kind of ‘political moralism’. This qualification indicates that this kind of political theory represents morality as ‘prior to’ politics and that it

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Paul Delany

Letter to Jean Floud, quoted in Ignatieff, Isaiah Berlin , 246–247. 9 Isaiah Berlin, Concepts and Categories (London: Hogarth Press, 1978), viii, vii. 10 Bernard Williams, Introduction to Concepts and Categories , xiv, viii. 11 Berlin, Letters

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Julia Eckert and Laura Knöpfel

lies in the weight they give to immediate cause, intent, and the capacity to effect change, which Bernard Williams (1993) called ‘response’. Reconceiving responsibility as a matter of ‘complex networked associations’, as Manzurual Hassan, Peter

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John H. Gillespie

on other projects including Saint Genet : comédien et martyr (1952). He abandoned the study of Mallarmé in 1952 and never took it up again. 12 Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science , ed. Bernard Williams, trans. Josefine Nauckhoff (Cambridge

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Ajume H. Wingo

representation and freedom has been expressed by Bernard Williams. In criticising the animal liberation movement, Williams claimed that the key to obtaining freedom is to speak for oneself: ‘Oppressed human groups come of age in the search for emancipation when