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Whites Cannot Be Black

A Bikoist Challenge to Professor Xolela Mangcu

Keolebogile Mbebe

fact, be black. I propose that because white people cannot experience the alienation that non-white people do, they cannot attain Black Consciousness and, thus, cannot be Politically Black. In my argument I first give Mangcu’s explanation of Biko

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The Weight of Absence

Rick Turner and the End of the Durban Moment

Billy Keniston

within the trade union movement saw the shift towards working-class politics as essentially a refusal to cooperate with the Black Consciousness movement. For example, Martin Legassick – a member of the Marxist Workers Tendency who was expelled from the

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Imagining Utopia in an Unfree World

Rick Turner on Morality, Inequality and Existentialism

Mary Ryan

alongside Turner’s essay ‘Black Consciousness and White Liberals’ (hereafter ‘Black’) as well as Eye to explore the evolution in his existentialist thought as a rallying cry for a new, Utopian society. In ‘Political Philosophy’, Turner infuses political

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South African Remains

E. P. Thompson, Biko, and the Limits of The Making of the English Working Class

Isabel Hofmeyr

E. P. Thompson's The Making of the English Working Class exercised a substantial influence on the South African academy and acted as a key shaper of a “history from below” movement in the 1980s. While Thompson's influence in South Africa has been celebrated, the limits of his circulation are less frequently explored. This article takes on this task by placing The Making alongside Steve Biko's I Write What I Like. Biko was a major figure in the emergence of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). The article compares the interlinked formations of which the two texts formed a part—the BCM displaced white radical intellectuals, who retreated into class analysis as an analytical alternative to race. The article also examines specific copies of the two titles found in South African libraries and uses the different patterns of marginalia as a way of tracing the individual impacts of the two texts.

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Class versus Nation

A History of Richard Turner’s Eclipse and Resurgence

Ian Macqueen

South Africa in 1968, one at the University of Cape Town (UCT) and one at the University College of Fort Hare, though only the UCT sit-in gained wide publicity. The Fort Hare sit-in contributed to the emergence of Black Consciousness in South Africa

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The Nemesis of the Suburbs

Richard Turner and South African Liberalism

Steven Friedman

). This critique lay at the centre of a much-quoted article by Turner which discussed Black Consciousness (BC) and its impact on white liberalism. His purpose was to challenge the liberal claim that BC’s stress on race was racist. Elaborating on his

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Raphael de Kadt

infamously said that the death in custody of the Black Consciousness leader, Steve Biko left him ‘cold’, saw Turner ‘the most dangerous man in South Africa’. These very words were said to the then German Ambassador, who pleaded with Mr. Kruger to permit

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Anthony Egan

Latin American liberation theology and the emerging Black Theologies of the United States and South Africa, the latter pioneered by the Black Consciousness movement led by Steve Biko. With this shift we also see the emergence of a more radical democratic

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Contested Memory

Retrieving the Africanist (Liberatory) Conception of Non-racialism

Ndumiso Dladla

liberation. This was a point well made in the 1940s by the African National Congress Youth League, the Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania in the 1950s, the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania in the 1960s and 1970s, the Azanian Peoples Organisation in the

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Some Senses of Pan-Africanism from the South

Christopher Allsobrook

alumni, such as Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela, and the Pan-Africanist thinking of Robert Sobukwe, who, in turn, influenced Azanian and Black Consciousness thought at the height of the mass liberation struggle in the 1970s and 80s. These neglected