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Clay Clemens

mandate but clinging on too long, and a complacent campaign relying on proven formulas despite resistance in the ranks amid ominous warning signs. These challenges and misjudgments did not deny Angela Merkel’s Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social

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Victor Igreja

advantage of an anti-violence campaign that unfolded in Brisbane and the surrounding cities, I analysed people’s perceptions and interpretations of the anti-violence images on display, and I examined the appropriateness of these locations to reach out to

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Political Campaigns and Civic Culture

Comparing Canvassing and Party Structures in the French and American 2012 Presidential Campaigns

Julien Talpin

for Barack Obama’s re-election campaign. The organization is clear-cut. Pam, the coordinating organizer we are waiting for, is an employee of the campaign. OFA pays our weekend travel and accommodation costs in exchange for giving a hand with electoral

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Carlo Marletti

An electoral campaign is a complex process in which political

actors interact with the mass media in order to orient the voting

preferences and choices of the electorate. It is presumed – but cannot

be taken for granted – that the election campaign is the period

in which the use of propaganda and various forms of political

communication is at its peak. In fact, the interaction between

media and politics has long since become a structural given of contemporary

democracies,1 and periods in which significant political

communication campaigns are developed form part of a cycle that

has become independent of electoral deadlines. It can even be

hypothesised that election campaigns are becoming an ‘internal

moment’ of these larger cycles during which the climate of opinion

that is asserted compromises the election result, sometimes

anticipating the election outcome by even several months.

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Jan Techau

Foreign policy issues did not play a decisive role in the German general election campaign of 2009. While Chancellor Angela Merkel conducted a decidedly presidential campaign, her main rival, SPD Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier, found it difficult to break out of his role as Merkel's partner in the Grand Coalition the two had led for four years. This was especially true with respect to issues on foreign policy, where both candidates had cooperated rather smoothly. Neither the issue of Afghanistan (despite the hotly debated Kunduz airstrike), nor the unresolved issues of the future of the European Union's Lisbon Treaty could antagonize the main political protagonists in Germany. The overwhelming foreign policy consensus among the mainstream political forces remained intact. Nevertheless, the changing international landscape and increased German responsibilities abroad will turn foreign policy into a relevant campaign issue, probably as early as 2013, when, presumably, the next Bundestag elections will be held.

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Vincent Pons

Elections and political campaigns make for a fascinating research playground. They correspond to Marcel Mauss’s definition of fait social total , a social phenomenon that involves all individuals and reveals something about them all. * 1 They take

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Charles Lees

The eighteenth Bundestag elections of 22 September 2013 brought important changes to the Bundestag party system, some of which are contingent but others of which are more systemic and profound. The narrow failure of the FDP to scale the electoral threshold has had an impact on coalition negotiations and the improvement in the overall vote share for the CDU/CSU and the SPD, for the first time since the 1960s represents a significant, if probably only temporary, concentration of the German party system in the Bundestag. More systemically, the election saw a continuation of the ongoing redistribution of voting power in the Bundestag in favor of the catch-all parties as formateurs. The article also discusses how the increased importance of the potential formateuer parties has gone hand-in-hand with a greater focus on the individual leading candidates, and concludes that this is particularly good news for the CDU/CSU, given the political qualities of Angela Merkel and the failure of the SPD to find and support a leading candidate that can match her political acumen.

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Gianfranco Baldini

One of the consequences of the dissolution of Parliament at the beginning

of February 2008 and the announcement of a general election to

be held two months later on 13 and 14 April was the postponement

for a year of the referendum on the electoral law. A few weeks earlier,

on 16 January, the Constitutional Court had given its approval to three

referendum questions designed to abrogate several parts of the electoral

law that had been passed by the Italian Parliament in 2005. We

can better understand how this latest referendum initiative influenced

Italian politics over the course of 2007 if we take a long-term view of

the importance of electoral laws and referendums in the country.

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Harald Schoen

Although governing coalitions in Germany often win reelection,

many observers were surprised by the victory of the red-green coalition

in 2002. Earlier that year, the polls had shown strong support

for a potential coalition of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU)

and the Christian Social Union (CSU), together with the Free Democratic

Party (FDP). In the summer of 2002, however, the SPD and

the Greens began to gain ground; and finally, the red-green coalition

won the majority of seats in the election to the German parliament,

the Bundestag, on 22 September 2002.

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Private Politics in the Garden of England

An Atypical Case of Anti–Wind Farm Contention

Matthew Ogilvie

particular planning systems ( Szarka and Blühdorn 2006 ). The use of private politics at Marden involved a successful campaign that focused on persuading and pressuring businesses (e.g., the developer, landowner, investors) associated with a proposed