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The Mule Caravans of Western Yunnan

An Oral History of the Muleteers of Zhaozhou

Ma Jianxiong and Ma Cunzhao

Mule caravans established a network across physical, political, and ethnic boundaries that integrated Southwest China, Southeast Asia, and Tibet. This article is a first exploration of this little-known mobile network. Based mainly on oral history, it focuses on the mule caravans based in Zhaozhou in western Yunnan from the late Qing to the 1940s, when the first motor roads were constructed. The investigation assembles horse and mule technologies and trade organization in detail in order to reconstruct the role and standing of transporters and their networks in local society, in the regional setting, in a volatile political environment, and in the face of challenging natural conditions.

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The Distant Sound of Mule Caravan Bells

Interview with Mr Li Zhengxiong, 19 August 2003 at Sanyi North Village, Heqing County, Yunnan

Ma Cunzhao

Sanyi consists of two villages, a northern and a southern one. In the Republican period (1912–1949) there was a “cauldron boss”1 in charge of the “northern caravan” by the name of Tenth Sister, who hailed from Sanyi North. Th e author came to the village to meet Mr Li Zhengxiong (Bai nationality, 78 years old), a grandnephew of Tenth Sister. Th e following is Mr Li’s account:

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“Orchestral Parts” in a Symphony of Motion

The Aesthetics of Coaching in the Golden Age of Horse and Carriage

Markus Poetzsch

Drawing on the work of Alfred de Vigny and Thomas De Quincey, this article examines the aesthetic appeal of coaching, a ubiquitous but little theorized mode of transport, in the golden age of horse and carriage (c. 1805–1825). The roots of Vigny's nostalgia for the shepherd's caravan and De Quincey's thrill ride on the mail-coach lie in the sympathetic connections that coaching, unlike train travel, establishes between living beings. These connections or “inter-agencies” serve in vital ways to rupture the solipsism and self-assurance of the solitary traveler, revealing his limited role in the vast plexus of nineteenth-century transport and motion.

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John Carmichael's Journey from Aleppo to Basra (1754)

A Pluralized View of the Enlightenment Discourse of Improvement

Mohammad Sakhnini

This article shows how the Enlightenment notion of improvement in a cross-cultural context cannot be one of constant polarization. Without ever travelling to the Middle East, the Scottish Enlightenment literati proposed that the Middle East is backward and primitive in its economic and material infrastructure. Europe is progressing while the Middle East remained stuck in ancient times. John Carmichael could not escape the European repository of knowledge about the Orient. In his “Journey from Aleppo to Basra” (1754), he sometimes considered Arabs are irrational, backward and primitive. Yet the conditions of traveling in an Arab caravan invited him to interact with the people he encountered. He socialized and exchanged services with the Arabs. At the same time he learned how modern progress needs not be looked at as one of complete banishment of ancient rituals and traditions from the past. The journey in the Middle East has its educational effects.

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Kelsey Hanrahan, Sarah Kunz, Milla Mineva, Kara Moskowitz, Till Mostowlansky, Cosmin Popan, and Vera Radeva Hadjiev

Seeing Women Migrants in Africa Kalpana Hiralal and Zaheera Jinnah, eds., Gender and Mobility in Africa: Borders, Bodies and Boundaries (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), xi + 259 pp., 10 illus., $119

Indigenous Mobilities: Thinking Mobility from the South and beyond the Nation-State Rachel Standfield, ed., Indigenous Mobilities: Across and Beyond the Antipodes (Canberra: ANU Press), 279 pp., $50

Mobile Dwellings, Standing Still: An Ethnography of Possible Mobility Hege Høyer Leivestad, Caravans: Lives on Wheels in Contemporary Europe (London: Bloomsbury Academic), 192 pp., 20 illus., $102.60

Rethinking Exile in and Out of Africa Nathan Riley Carpenter and Benjamin N. Lawrance, eds., Africans in Exile: Mobility, Law, and Identity (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2018), 337 pp., $35

How to Study Roads Anthropologically Dimitris Dalakoglou, The Road: An Ethnography of (Im)mobility, Space, and Cross-Border Infrastructures in the Balkans (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017), 203 pp., 34 illus., £19.99

Invisible Cycle Histories for Brighter Mobility Futures Tiina Männistö-Funk and Timo Myllyntaus, eds., Invisible Bicycle: Parallel Histories and Different Timelines (Leiden: Brill, 2018), xii + 282 pp., $133

Someone Needs to Care: Caregiving Practices beyond the Family and the State Azra Hromadzic and Monika Palmberger, eds., Care across Distance: Ethnographic Explorations of Aging and Migration (New York: Berghahn Books, 2018), 183 pp., 15 illus., $110

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Austrian “Gypsies” in the Italian archives

Historical ethnography on multiple border crossings at the beginning of the twentieth century

Paola Trevisan

ethnography. Caravans of Austrian “Gypsies” in the Kingdom of Italy (1907–1912) Starting from Foucault's (1972 [2002]: 79–134) analysis, Stoler (2002) investigates the archive as a collection of technologies that reinforce and support the state, creating

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Dirty Work, Dangerous Others

The Politics of Outsourced Immigration Enforcement in Mexico

Wendy Vogt

threatens order, security, and the nation itself in both US and Mexican contexts ( Douglas [1966] 2013 ; Malkki 1995 ). Such anxieties have become even more heightened through the recent political hysteria around several caravans of Central American asylum

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Spirit of the Future

Movement, Kinetic Distribution, and Personhood among Siberian Eveny

Olga Ulturgasheva

toward a new encampment and then prepare for a trip. They pack all their belongings, fix broken sledges, tie down their luggage (including tents and movable ovens) to the sledges, and arrange a reindeer caravan. After the preparations are complete, the

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Florian Krobb

African man draws a map in the dust on the ground and, or so we have to assume, explains the itinerary Albrecht Roscher will have followed, a journey along established caravan routes. The map, two vaguely parallel lines in the sand, brings into sharp

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Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh and Mette Louise Berg

securitization of the US-Mexico border in response to the “migrant caravan.” In this sense, we view a commitment to exploring the temporalities, spatialities, and materialities of migration and the diverse encounters that arise in, from, and through migration and