Recently, social-media tools have been widely credited with igniting pervasive social upheavals in the Middle East, some of which brought down governments. This article explores the putative structure of such gatherings and considers new developments in what such collectives might be from a Sartrean perspective, in particular as mediated by the arrival of social media. A Sartrean perspective on the still indefinite composition of media collectives is offered under Sartre's concept of the groupe en fusion, yet still open to discussion under his concept of individual free choice. Throughout, the chimerical presence of the We-subject, as an ontologically suspect entity arises, in particular when reification is attempted by socialmedia users living under illiberal political regimes. The situation of dissident women in the Middle East is often referred to.
Virtuous Action and Obligation in Contemporary Tibet
(sometimes intense) moral reflection and critique: collective, and often highly organized, sponsorship through which community members contribute small amounts of cash or goods—known as kartik [dkar thig] or ‘drops of virtuous action’—toward the funding of
Adrianna Tassone and Mindi D. Foster
Criss 2017 ). Both events typify collective action—that is, any action intended to benefit the larger collective, whether taken individually or in a physical group ( Louis 2009 ; Wright et al. 1990 ; Wright 2009 ). Although there are both societal
“At the end of October 1939, the French sociologist Maurice Halbwachs,” the founder of collective memory studies, “visited the convent of the Sisters of Our Lady of Sion and looked at the excavations under it” ( Lemire 2017: 56 ). A few years
Marnina Gonick and Susanne Gannon
In June 2011, seven feminist academics gathered to spend a week working together on a collective biography workshop in a small resort town, called Hawk’s Nest, in New South Wales, Australia. Some of us were senior faculty with prior experience with the methodology of collective biography, others were freshly minted or about to be minted PhDs who were totally new to the research methodology. Some of us knew each other from other contexts, and others were meeting for the first time. We were from five different university institutions, working in a range of fields in schools of Education.
The article proposes a semantic theory of collective singulars, or singular collective names, designating basic historical concepts, which came into being in the period of the Enlightenment. Their logical structure seems to be internally contradictory, for they refer at the same time to universal values and ideas and to concrete historical occurrences. They also entail two different principles of category-formation—the logic of general names and that of proper names. The two logics are equally rooted in our cognitive makeup; however, different cultures favor either one or the other. The article examines the transformation of the balance of the two logics in European thought from the Middle Ages to the present. The formation of the idea of universal history has brought about an equilibrium of the two logics, while the contemporary "crisis of the future" is accompanied by the rise of the logic of proper names.
Building solidarities in the Maoist movement in Nepal
Dan V. Hirslund
A stubborn, anticapitalist movement, Maoism has persisted in the global periphery for the many past decades despite its tainted image as a progressive alterpolitical platform. This article seeks to ponder why this is the case by looking at a recent and popular example of leftist radical politics in the MLM tradition. I argue that contemporary Nepali Maoism is offering a militant, collectivist, antiliberal model for confronting capitalist and state hegemony in an effort to forge new class solidarities. Responding to a changed political environment for continuing its program of socialist revolution, I trace how the Maoist party's efforts at building a mass movement become centered on the question of organization, and in particular the requirements of what I term an ethical organization. Through an analysis of how caste and gender equalities are institutionalized within the movement, and the various ways in which collectivity becomes linked to concrete practices, the article offers an ethnographic analysis of contested egalitarian agency within a movement undergoing rapid change.
Globalizing Transmission through Localized Experience
The articles in this issue highlight the relationship between collective memory and tourism. In what ways are practices of collective remembering implicated with those of tourism? Where do collective memory scholarship and tourism studies meet? How might the two interdisciplinary academic fields be shaped through each other’s concepts? We suggest that experiencing the collective past is integral to specific forms of tourism, particularly what is called ‘heritage tourism’. So, too, are certain kinds of public practices of collective remembering increasingly connected with the tourism industry. In the absence of, or complementary to, financial support for the historic preservation efforts, the entrepreneurial approach to the collective past turns objects of such memory into tourist attractions to keep them economically viable. Thinking about collective remembering in relation to tourism directs our analytical focus to the authority of experiencing the past in a specific tourist place in the present. It centres our attention on what is involved in making this experience possible.
The Large-Scale Rituals of the Repkong Tantrists in Tibet
central than in performance-centered ritual forms marked by more open-endedness, indeterminacy, often ‘inspirational’ ritual specialists ( Turner 1968: 439 ), and collective negotiation of the ritual process ( Schieffelin 1985 ). Liturgical forms of ritual
A Competing Risks Analysis of Ministerial Turnover in the German Länder (1990-2010)
Länder. These twelve exit types are enumerated and then aggregated to form four broader groups of terminal events: 1) voluntary exits; 2) forced exits; 3) collective exits; and, 4) exits that are neither volitional acts of the ministers nor politically