In retelling the history of “criminal tribe” settlements managed by the Salvation Army in Madras Presidency (colonial India) from 1911, I argue that neither the mobility–immobility relationship nor the compositional heterogeneity of (im)mobility practices can be adequately captured by relational dialecticism espoused by leading mobilities scholars. Rather than emerging as an opposition through dialectics, the relationship between (relative) mobility and containment may be characterized by overlapping hybridity and difference. This differential hybridity becomes apparent in two ways if mobility and containment are viewed as immanent gatherings of humans and nonhumans. First, the same entities may participate in gatherings of mobility and of containment, while producing different effects in each gathering. Here, nonhumans enter a gathering, and constitute (im)mobility practices, as actors that make history irreducibly differently from other actors that they may be entangled with. Second, modern technologies and amodern “institutions” may be indiscriminately drawn together in all gatherings.
Gatherings of Mobility and Immobility
Itinerant “Criminal Tribes” and Their Containment by the Salvation Army in Colonial South India
Developing a culture of marginality
Nepal's current classificatory moment
This article examines the complex relationships between marginalized communities, the state, and nonstate actors such as development agencies and social scientists in crafting the classificatory regimes that undergird affirmative action policies. Focusing on the current dynamics of “ethnic restructuring“ amid the broader political process of postconflict “state restructuring“ in Nepal, I suggest that international actors often unwittingly encourage the hardening of ethnic boundaries through development projects that target “marginalized“ populations defined in cultural terms. However, such interventions can also yield unexpected transformations in agentive ethnic consciousness. This ethnographic exploration of current classificatory processes in non-postcolonial Nepal provides an important counterpoint to material from the Indian context, where histories of colonial classification have debatably influenced contemporary categories-and their critique-to a significant extent.
Visualizing Vigilance in the Generalized Representation of the Nomad
Reflections on the Banjara Community in Rajasthan, India
illegality in reference to their mobility. The colonial classification of the Banjara as offenders relied on ignoring mobility as a regularized occupational requirement. This allowed their mobility to be interpreted in terms of their physical absence from
Vibe Nielsen, Henrietta Lidchi, Jesmael Mataga, Annelise Schroeder, Gwyneira Isaac, and Riley Rogerson
. “ Demanding Recognition: Curatorial Challenges in the Exhibition of Art from South Africa .” PhD diss., University of Copenhagen. Nielsen , Vibe . 2021 . “ Kunstbegrebets Koloniale Klassifikationer til Forhandling på Museer i Sydafrika ” [Colonial