This article focuses on the economic aspects of German European policy in the 1950s and raises the question whether the economic system of the Federal Republic of Germany, “Soziale Marktwirtschaft” had any impact on the European policy of the West German state. It argues that Social Market Economy as defined by Ludwig Erhard influenced German European policy in certain aspects, but there was a latent contradiction between the political approach of Konrad Adenauer and this economic concept. Moreover, this article shows that West German European policy was not always as supportive for European unity as it is often considered.
Remaking Rural Landscapes in Twenty-first Century Europe
The management of agriculture has long played a key role in efforts to remake European borders, landscapes and identities. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been a centerpiece of European collaboration and debate since the first steps were taken to establish the European Community after the Second World War. Launched by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, it was first designed to regulate the agricultural market and protect food security across the original six member states of France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. With successive European enlargements and ongoing transformations in the world agricultural markets, the CAP has been in continual negotiation.
European Sugar Reform in Poland
Dong Ju Kim
In the last two decades, privatisation has been slowly progressing in Poland. I examine the case of beet-sugar factories in western Poland, which were privatised between 1995 and 2003. As this process was coming to an end, reform for the European Common Agricultural Policy was implemented and, after Poland joined the European Union, the European sugar market reform started to take shape as a result of a global trade dispute on subsidised sugar prices. I recount the story of sugar factory privatisation and multiple reform processes from the viewpoint of sugar beet farmers, factory managers, and local rural experts from the province of Wielkopolska in western Poland. These accounts will show how sugar market reforms affected the aftermath of privatisation and factory close-downs, and how these experiences have prompted local people to think of being Polish within Europe, but reluctantly European within a global framework of sugar trade.
Transitions and Transformations in Basque Agricultural Practices
Meredith Welch-Devine and Seth Murray
In this article, we discuss the economic constraints and opportunities that Basque farmers in two neighbouring valleys in France faced before the 2003 reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the last decade, constraints and opportunities have shifted, and farmers have diversified their economic strategies in order to cope with a rise in rural tourism and second home ownership, an expansion of leisure activities into what has historically been an agricultural territory, and the implications that the uncertain future of the European Union's CAP has for small family farmers in this area. We examine this diversification of household economic strategies to include non-agricultural activities and the implications it has for economic health and rural livelihoods in the Basque region.
Common Agricultural Policy, and some regional subsidy programs have rebalanced the ship somewhat over the years. Since the onset of the current Cohesion Policy in 1988, European Structural Funds have undoubtedly contributed to leveling out income gaps and
Tools aimed at achieving balance as the basis for transformative development
Harlan Koff, Miguel Equihua Zamora, Carmen Maganda, and Octavio Pérez-Maqueo
. ( 2015 ). Benchmarks for a truly universal post-2015 agenda for sustainable development . Regions & Cohesion 5 ( 1 ): 73 – 93 . 10.3167/reco.2015.050105 Matthews , A. ( 2008 ) The European Union’s common agricultural policy and developing
Lessons from Madrid
Marian Simon-Rojo, Inés Morales Bernardos, and Jon Sanz Landaluze
a Global City Since the mid to late 1990s grassroots rural networks such as Plataforma Rural converged with environmentalist and anticapitalist organizations opposed to the reforms implemented by the Maastricht Treaty and Common Agricultural Policy
How Polish Political Elites Frame Their Discourse on “German Hegemony”
Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski and Maciej Olejnik
agricultural policy is in jeopardy, since the next eu budget will be significantly smaller without Great Britain's membership fee. Poland needs especially Germany on its side in order to protect the interests of Polish farmers, 49 and the Weimar Triangle
Analyzing US and EU policies through the lens of normative transformation
for a truly universal post–2015 agenda for sustainable development . Regions & Cohesion 5 ( 1 ), 73 – 94 . 10.3167/reco.2015.050105 Matthews , A. ( 2008 ). The European Union’s common agricultural policy and developing countries: The struggle
Aaron Freundschuh, Jonah D. Levy, Patricia Lorcin, Alexis Spire, Steven Zdatny, Caroline Ford, Minayo Nasiali, George Ross, William Poulin-Deltour, and Kathryn Kleppinger
has consistently resisted efforts to move the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) away from price setting and toward more market-friendly and less expensive support for farmer incomes. Back home (quite literally), a 2014 law expanded rent control in large