suspected that citizens are aspirant tax evaders, and citizens suspected that the state does not want them to unseat the economic elite. By juxtaposing contract enforcement to tax inspections, Istrians argued that fiskalizacija reflected the government
Tax Reform and Economic Governance in Istria, Croatia
Prisons, Sanctions, and Education
Examining two Israeli cases, this article addresses the highly controversial question about the privatization of state authority. The first concerns the Supreme Court decision that prohibits private prisons, a ruling that reflects the deep-rooted assumption that criminal punishment is a matter of state authority. The second case refers to the Israeli religious organization Takana Forum, which seeks to handle sexual offenses committed by authoritative figures within its community. The relation between privatization, privacy, and multiculturalism is presented as potentially perpetuating patriarchal authority in family life, education, and punishment. Following this discussion, different models of privatization based on the nature of the respective privatized authority are presented. The article concludes with an analysis of the conflict between communal and state law and its potential effect on Israel's collective co-existence.
This article explores the representation of sexuality and vision in Elfriede Jelinek's Die Klavierspielerin [The Piano Teacher] (1983) and Michael Haneke's La Pianiste (2001). In its focus on the relation between Mother and Erika, Die Klavierspielerin brings right to the fore the grounding of both sexuality and visuality in the ongoing ties between mother and child. Displacing that novel onto the screen, Haneke redoubles its focus on vision. It is in the convergence between the two that we can begin to explore what may be described as the maternal dimension of the various technologies of vision that have come to pervade the everyday experience of looking—their effect on our ways of understanding the relations between visuality and selfhood, visuality and mind.
Tax Beyond the Social Contract
Nicolette Makovicky and Robin Smith
. Such approaches allow us collectively to unpick, examine, and question what has heretofore been accepted as truism in tax research—namely, the notion that tax and taxation are primarily a matter of the social contract and are best studied through the
Solar Power and Humanitarian Energy Markets in Africa
the United Nations directly. He imagined the company distributing small-scale solar powered lighting devices in refugee camps across Burkina Faso and Niger by securing a major procurement contract with the UNHCR. Landing a big institutional customer
Ethnographic Insights from Senegal
Diane Duclos, Sylvain L. Faye, Tidiane Ndoye, and Loveday Penn-Kekana
-party logisticians – referred to at our field site and thereafter in this article as private operators (POs) – by the non-governmental organisation (NGO) implementing the intervention and working under performance-based contracting to deliver contraceptives and
The lottery and precarity of farming in Peru
Astrid B. Stensrud
to depend solely on income from milk production. Contract farming versus taking the risk in the quinoa boom Many of the farmers in the MIP combine milk production with high-and medium-risk cash crops. Most crops are sold to intermediaries who
Shifting Constellations and Permeable Boundaries in “Private” Security Contracting
Maya Mynster Christensen
shadow soldiering to illuminate the constellations of soldiering that Sierra Leonean ex-soldiers and ex-militias morph into—in this article with a particular focus on private security contracting in Iraq. This outsourcing was initiated in 2009 when the
Linda Hose and E.J. Ford
Based on personal experiences garnered through years of adjunct instruction, the authors explore the challenges associated with working in academia without the guarantees of a long-term contract or tenure. Further, adjuncts are desperate to accept any position that is remunerative and this willingness undermines contract negotiation leverage of every member of the academic teaching community.
A Wittgensteinian Response to the Very Idea of a Social Contract
In the ordinary way, we all know very well what a contract is. It is a mutual undertaking or promise by two or more parties to do or refrain from doing something or another. Such promises may be made verbally, by means of gestures, or expressed in writing, but they must be expressed or else the contract is not merely null and void, but nonexistent. There is no such thing as an inaudible and invisible contract. To think otherwise is to mistake metaphorical for literal language. Yet the history of political philosophy from the 17th century until the present day has been dominated by the idea of a contract to which no persons living or dead ever affixed a signature or so much as nodded assent; a promise binding on the whole of civilised humankind, on which are thought to rest the complementary edifices of civil society and the state.