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Eduardo Cintra Torres

This article aims to bring out Durkheim's development of a pioneering sociology of the crowd, overlapping with yet going beyond psychological theories of the time. It begins by exploring the terminology used by Durkheim, colleagues and contemporaries in referring to crowds/gatherings/assemblies, and next asks about the social, political and intellectual context in which 'the crowd' became a key issue, as in the Dreyfus Affair and among writers such as Tarde. It then focuses on the issue's discussion in Durkheim's new journal, the Année sociologique, as well as in his own major works, but above all in Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, which offers a seminal, if concealed, sociology of the crowd.

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The Crown and the Crowd

Sublimations of Monarchy in Georgian Satirical Prints

David Morgan

James might well have possessed all of this requisite prior knowledge; but what of the crowds who gathered outside that shop to gaze at the prints displayed in the windows? It defies belief that the street hawkers, crossing sweepers, knife grinders

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Underground Theater

Theorizing Mobility through Modern Subway Dramas

Sunny Stalter-Pace

This article begins from the premise that modern American drama provides a useful and understudied archive of representations of mobility. It focuses on plays set on the New York City subway, using the performance studies concept of “restored behavior” to understand the way that these plays repeat and heighten the experience of subway riding. Through their repetitions, they make visible the psychological consequences of ridership under the historical and cultural constraints of the interwar period. Elmer Rice's 1929 play The Subway is read as a particularly rich exploration of the consequences of female passenger's presumed passivity and sexualization in this era. The Subway and plays like it enable scholars of mobility to better understand the ways that theatrical texts intervene in cultural conversations about urban transportation.

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Democratizing the Digital Collection

New Players and New Pedagogies in Three-Dimensional Cultural Heritage

Jane-Heloise Nancarrow

artifacts. New Stakeholders Crowd-sourcing has become a popular way to create and distribute models, and museums are using the modeling process to host collaborative public outreach events and community forums (Frieman and Wilkin this volume). This increases

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Marcelo Hoffman

of them in contemporary political theory. Spurred by the difficulties of many of the new protest movements in acquiring a more enduring presence, Dean mounts a spirited defence of the party. In her most recent iteration of this defence, Crowds and

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Redefining Representation

Black Trans and Queer Women’s Digital Media Production

Moya Bailey

creating their own digital health zine, both processes that value crowd sourced knowledge and the creation of images that subvert dominant representations of their communities. The creation of the hashtag #girlslikeus and the Brown Boi Health Guide are but

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The Return of the Republic

Crowd Photography and the Liberation in Toulouse, 1944–1945

Hanna Diamond

During the Liberation of Toulouse, crowd photography dominated the local press rather than the scenes of combat and barricades that marked coverage in Paris and elsewhere. This article shows how crowd photography contributed to a common construction of republicanism across the Toulouse press and exhibitions. It argues that the circulation of these images not only communicated the message that the “people” were once again sovereign, but also implied that these populations had been instrumental in their liberation, thereby contributing to the mythology of “la France résistante.” Editors mobilized crowd photography to convey to viewers the importance of adopting their republican roles at a time of community reconstruction. Reading the photography of the Liberation of Toulouse reveals that while photographic messaging in Liberation France varied in line with local circumstances, it nonetheless played a potent role in contributing to democratic resurgence.

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Sick Weather Ahead

On Data-Mining, Crowd-Sourcing and White Noise

Carlo Caduff

The main concern of this article is with the ways in which technologies of data-mining and crowd-sourcing have made it possible for citizens to contribute to the expansion of infectious disease surveillance as both a concrete practice and a compelling fantasy. But I am less interested in participation as such, and more concerned with the epistemological effects that this technological mediation might have for the possibility of epidemic events to become shared objects of knowledge. What happens with epidemic events when they become targets of data-mining and crowd-sourcing technologies?

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Les Temps modernes is publishing here for the first time a film script written by Sartre during the winter of 1943-1944. We thank Daniel Accursi for generously passing it along and Michel Contat for preparing it for publication. Sartre’s article entitled “A film for the postwar period,” which appeared [unsigned] in L’Ecran français and was incorporated into the Lettres françaises [clandestine], no. 15, April 1944, clearly indicates the purpose of this project: “On screen—and only on screen—is there place for a panic-stricken, a furious or a serene crowd. The novelist can evoke the masses; if the dramatist wants to represent them on stage, he must symbolize them by using half a dozen characters who assume the name and function of the chorus; only films show them. And it is to the masses themselves that they do so: to fifteen million or twenty million spectators. It is in this manner that film can speak about the crowd to the crowd. That is what the great pioneers of film, such as Griffith, Cecil B. de Mille and King Vidor understood so well. This does not mean that films cannot show love stories or conflicts between individuals. Far from it. But they must reinsert them into their social setting. The speed with which the camera can move from place to place also permits it to situate a story in the whole universe. The wellknown rule of theatrical unity in French classical drama does not apply at all to film. One can even introduce several plots simultaneously, have them unfold in different settings and have their very diversity contribute to the creation of a complete social situation. The film’s unity therefore emanates from its profound meaning, from the epoch it restores, and not from the concatenation of the circumstances that make up a minuscule and unique anecdote.

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Jonathan Schorsch

While the illustrious crowd may frequent Mallorca for some sophisticated sun, I convinced my wife that the island also represented the perfect, perhaps once-in-a-lifetime Passover plan. In mid-winter, a colleague, Gloria Mound, informed me that she was organising Passover in Mallorca for the local descendants of the island’s Jews, who had converted to Catholicism – some willingly but most under duress – beginning in the fourteenth century. Gloria and her husband Leslie direct Casa Shalom, an institute in Gan Yavneh, Israel that researches the worldwide descendants of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, many of whom converted to Catholicism. A vacation they took in Ibiza turned into a three-year stay.