During the last twenty to thirty years, a quiet culinary transformation has been going on in Norway—one that is surprisingly unobtrusive and scarcely ever mentioned. Many Norwegians have acquired new eating habits and a multicultural cuisine, indicating acceptance and inquisitiveness—this in a country where just a few years ago red peppers were considered to be dubious vegetables. In this article, the entrepreneurship of a family that has stood behind much of this development—the ‘Wong’ family from Hong Kong—is analyzed. Criticizing the common emphasis on ethnicity and drawing instead upon a concept of ‘mixed embeddedness,’ the following aspects of the Wong family’s entrepreneurship are examined: niche expansion, cooperation strategies, management in a spatial context, concept development, clientele, personnel, and market positioning. To the degree that ethnicity is included, the suggestion is to study whether and how ethnicity, together with the other aspects mentioned, is relevant in the making of profit and control.
Culinary Entrepreneurship through Two Generations
In the mid- to late-nineteenth century, millions of Germans emigrated
to the New World. Today, however, immigration to Germany
is an integral aspect of everyday life in the country. The consequences
of immigration are far-reaching, ranging from the wealth of
culinary options offered by Italian, Greek, or Chinese restaurants, to
the social costs of employing thousands of foreign workers in Germany’s
construction sector. In the Ruhr River area, Germany’s
largest industrial melting pot, Turkish names are now as common as
Polish names—the latter representing an immigrant group that settled
in the area some 100 years ago.
Christopher Hill, Anna Bara, David Dettmann, Joseph Livesey, and Falk Huettmann
about as being dirty, excessive, and potentially poisonous, but at the same time, Chinese restaurants are quite popular (85). Likewise, Chinese men are frequently depicted as dirty, poor, and backward construction workers, but at the same time, they
Australian and Canadian Visions of Women, Modernity, and Mobility between the Wars
evidenced later in the serial when Rosalind enters the potentially scandalous foreign locale of a Chinese restaurant in Macassar, informing fellow passenger James MacLean: “Don’t let my reputation worry you. Consider my curiosity instead.” 30 However, when