This article examines the attitudes of the indigenous people in Markovo, Chukotka, to their tradition and traditional knowledge as it relates to their becoming adult members in the community. Within the local cosmological system the opposition between the elders, who are considered as possessors of special knowledge, and the youngsters, who are seen as lacking it, creates certain tensions and determines the dynamics of individual development. A person who has entered her or his adulthood should accumulate special knowledge and power. In doing so, young adults begin to overcome the oppositional relationship between elders and youngsters. Markovo villagers associate such special knowledge and power with tradition. However, modern ways of life have become the dominant frame of reference, thus the position of youngsters toward tradition is not self-evident. They feel the need to negotiate their place in the community and their indigenous identity. Discussions about tradition play an important role in their attempts at attaining a local identity.
Negotiation of identities in Markovo village (Chukotka)
A 120-Year Story of Language Shift
Maria Pupynina and Yuri Koryakov
The Chukchi-speaking population is distributed within three regions of the Russian Federation—Chukotka, Kamchatka, and Yakutia. Because of the lack of regular transportation between these regions and different attitudes toward the Chukchi from the local authorities, Chukchi-speaking communities in these regions have become isolated from one another and have been developing independently. This article observes the dynamics of language shift in all Chukchi-speaking areas through the analysis of the data of the Russian Censuses (1897–2015), literature sources, and personal observations. The figures in this article illustrate the distribution of Chukchi-speaking communities within their historical and modern homeland, Chukchi vernacular zones, the participation in traditional economic activities, and contacts with other languages.
Economies of Yupik Language Maintenance and Loss
Daria Morgounova Schwalbe
Using an ethnography of speaking approach, this article discusses the ideological aspects of language practices, as they are played out in a traditional Yupik (Eskimo) village in Chukotka, in the Far East of the Russian Federation. The article shows how local linguistic practices and language choices of individual speakers intersect with purist language ideologies, which frame certain beliefs about languages and ways of speaking, making them appear more normal and appropriate than others. Placing the “work of speaking” within the context of cross-cultural dynamics and purist language economies, this article challenges the basic assumption of linguistic purism about language and identity being intertwined.
Alexander B. Dolitsky
This review of the traditional narratives of the indigenous people of the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsulas identifies major genres, motifs, plots, and subjects found in Siberian Yupik, Chukchi, Kerek, Koryak, and Itelmen narrative folklore, as well as specific features of the folklore of each of the peoples of the Chukotka-Kamchatka region. In addition to discussing the subjects and motifs found in the narrative tales from Chukotka and Kamchatka, the article reviews developments surrounding the typology and classification of oral traditions of the indigenous cultures of the region and the overall value of the tales as a prehistoric and ethnographic source. This survey will be of interest to those fond of traditional narratives of the Russian Far East, as well as to specialists interested in comparative-typological research of oral narratives in anthropology.
Gail Fondahl, Timothy Heleniak, Christopher Hill and Michèle Therrien
Yulian Konstantinov, Reindeer-Herders. Field-Notes from the Kola Peninsula (1994–1995)
Florian Stammler, Reindeer Nomads Meet the Market. Culture, Property and Globalisation at the “End of the Land”
Aimar Ventsel, Reindeer, Rodina and Reciprocity. Kinship and Property in a Siberian Village
Vladislava Vladimirova, Just Labor. Labor Ethic in a Post-Soviet Reindeer Herding Community
Patty A. Gray, The Predicament of Chukotka’s Indigenous Movement: Post-Soviet Activism in the Russian Far North
A.A. Velchko and V.P. Nechaev, eds., Cenozoic Climatic and Environmental Changes in Russia
John F. Hoffecker and Scott A. Elias, Human Ecology of Beringia
Natascha Sontag, Map of the Inuit Language in Inuit Communities in Canada, Inuktitun Inuit Nunanginni Kanatami, La langue inuit dans les communautés inuit au Canada
Film Received for Review
Helen Hundley, Peter Jordon, Alexander D. King, Victor L. Mote and Kathryn Pinnick
David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, Toward the Rising Sun. Russian Ideologies of Empire and the Path to War with Japan (Dekalb, Ill.: Northern University Press, 2001) 329pp. £31.95 (hb); $42.00 (hb) ISBN 0-87580-276-1 (hb)
Anna Reid, The Shaman’s Coat: A Native History of Siberia (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2002) 226pp. £20.00 (hb). ISBN 0-2976-4377-0 (hb)
Kira Van Deusen, Raven and the Rock: Storytelling in Chukotka (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999) 216pp. £20? (hb) ISBN 0-295-97841-4 (hb) Matthew J. Payne, Stalin’s Railroad: Turksib and the Building of Socialism Victor L. Mote
Matthew J. Payne, Stalin’s Railroad: Turksib and the Building of Socialism (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001) 384pp. £23.00, ISBN 0-8229-4166-X
Jennifer Considine and William Kerr, The Russian Oil Economy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Press, 2002) 360pp. £69.95 (hb), ISBN 1-84064-758-2 (hb)
Changing Migration Patterns in the Russian North
This article examines changes in the migration system in the Russian North over the two decades since the breakup of the Soviet Union and the beginning of economic reforms using unpublished data from the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia. This is done by computing several measures of migration for selected northern regions: 1) measures of migration efficiency to determine the extent to which migration in the northern regions is redistributing the population; 2) migration transition probabilities to measure changes in the origins and destinations of migrants in the Russian North; and 3) the average distance of moves to determine the effects that increased costs of transportation have on migration. The regions examined in this article include Khanty-Mansi and Iamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Magadan Oblast', and Murmansk Oblast'. The findings show that as the market has taken hold, regions of economic growth are becoming primary migration destinations for persons migrating both to and from the North.
Ryan T. Jones, Anna Bara, Galina V Grosheva, Ekaterina Gruzdeva, Peter Schweitzer, Kathryn Demps and Roza Laptander
A World Trimmed with Fur: Wild Things and the Natural Fringes of Qing Rule Jonathan Schlesinger (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2017), 288 pp. ISBN: 9780804799966
Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin’s Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research Andrej Kotljarchuk and Olle Sundström, eds. (Stockholm: Elanders, 2017), 283 pp., paperback $27.00. ISBN: 978-91-7601-777-7.
Kosmologiia i praktika sibirskogo shamanizma Elena V. Nam (Tomsk: Tomskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2017), 296 pp. ISBN: 978-5-7511-2521-9.
Kul’tura i resursy. Opyt etnologicheskogo obsledovaniia sovremennogo polozheniia narodov Severnogo Sakhalina Dmitrii Funk, ed. (Moscow: “Demos,” 2015), 272 pp. ISBN 978-5-9904710-6-1.
Maritime Hunting Culture of Chukotka: Traditions and Modern Practices Igor Krupnik and Rachel Mason, eds. (Anchorage, AK: National Park Service, Shared Beringian Heritage Program, 2016), 343 pp. ISBN: 9780990725251. Litsom k moriu: Pamiati Liudmily Bogoslovskoi Igor Krupnik, ed. (Moscow: Moskva, 2016), 647 pp. ISBN 9785600013650.
T-Bone Whacks and Caviar Snacks: Cooking with Two Texans in Siberia and the Russian Far East Sharon Hudgins (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2018), 448 pp. ISBN: 9781574417142.
Bij de Joekagieren. Het oudste toendravolk van Noord-Oost Siberië / Life with the Yukaghir: Northeast Siberia’s Oldest Tundra People Cecilia Odé (Lias, Uitgeverij: Verschijningsjass, 2018), 240 pp., €29.95 (paperback). ISBN: 978-90-8803-099-4.