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Timothy Tackett

This article is conceived as an overview of the career and scholarship of Claude Langlois. It emphasizes the breadth, diversity, and volume of his work, giving particular attention to four fields in which Langlois made especially important contributions. These fields to some extent mark four phases of his scholarly career-although not necessarily in chronological order. These are historical religious sociology, the French Revolution, women and religion, and theology and spirituality. The conclusion stresses the originality and independence of thought displayed by Langlois throughout his career.

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Guillaume Cuchet

Les travaux de Claude Langlois sur Thérèse de Lisieux ont débouché sur la publication de pas moins de huit livres, représentant quelque 2500 pages, en l'espace d'une quinzaine d'années. Ces ouvrages d'une grande érudition ont surpris beaucoup de lecteurs par leur volume, leur approche et leurs thèses, à mi-chemin entre histoire, histoire littéraire et exégèse. La thèse principale de Langlois est que Thérèse de Lisieux était un véritable écrivain, conscient de l'être, de sorte que son œuvre doit être traitée comme telle. Langlois nous dépeint ainsi une Thérèse de Lisieux très di érente de son sage portrait traditionnel: radicale, pathétique et subversive, aux prises avec l'infini de ses désirs et la perspective de sa mort imminente. Plus largement, le travail de Langlois possède une dimension expérimentale : celle de savoir jusqu'où l'historien peut aller, avec ses moyens propres, dans l'exploration de la subjectivité croyante.

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D.M.G. Sutherland

Claude Langlois's work on the French Revolution captures the experience of ordinary people in the country as a whole. Against an interpretation that sees the Revolution as resulting in a secular, modernized France, he emphasizes the ambiguity and uncertainties of the outcome. He is above all interested in assessing the impact of the Revolution on the Church. Although the Revolution had a profound impact on the personnel, landscape, finances, and politics of the Church, the Concordat created the conditions for recovery. There were restorations in pastoral care and practices but in addition, there were also ruptures, especially in the long term. Alongside a nineteenth century of unexpected piety, there were also regions and groups of low practice and indifference. The article also discusses Langlois's contributions to the political history of the coup of 1799, and to population studies.

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Claude Langlois's Vision of France

Regional Identity, Royal Imaginary, and Holy Women

Donald Sutherland

Claude Langlois’s work points the way out of a long-standing whiggish view, not only of French, but also European historiography. If Western Civ textbooks or respectable general histories reflect the consensus of the profession, it is still easy to find themes of progress toward equality, secularism, and modernity. Such themes are defensible, of course, but they are one-sided. They omit a lot, like the experiences of those left out of the march of progress, of religious institutions, and of unintended victims of revolution and civil war. A more sophisticated rendering would be more satisfactory since it would emphasize resistance, the apparently marginal, and the richness of historical experience. It would replace assumptions about inevitable outcomes with a greater awareness of contingency. Claude Langlois’s work on women, religion, and the French Revolution illustrates how such a complicated history might look.

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Thomas Kselman

This article examines some of Langlois's major works on nineteenth-century French Catholicism, which taken together suggest a vision langloisienne defined by three central, intimately interrelated insights. First, for Langlois a chronology of French Catholicism based on an assumption of an ineluctable process of dechristianization needs to be replaced by a more nuanced and contingent understanding of the evolution of belief and practice. Second, a revised chronology illuminates important sectors of creative vitality within Catholicism, particularly with regard to female religious congregations. Third, historians of religion must be willing to use a variety of methods in exploring their subject; social scientific approaches are crucial, but they complement rather than replace traditional narrative, biography, and a close reading of literary texts. The article concludes with reflections on the normative posture that is implicit in Langlois's historical writing, a position based on his commitment to the values of toleration and equality.

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Le Catholicisme au féminin

Thirty Years of Women's History

Rebecca Rogers

This article evaluates the influence of Claude Langlois's research on female religious congregations in the field of women's history. It explores how his central findings contributed to scholarship on the feminization of religion before generating a strain of revisionist historiography concerning the history of girls' education and the history of the nursing profession and health care. Specifically, Langois's work has led scholars to investigate the archives of religious congregations and evaluate the emergence of a professional ethos among teaching and nursing nuns. The article concludes with an analysis of his more recent writings on missionary congregations and how this also has inspired work on the gendering of religious mission.

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Cruci erunt eum inter duos latrones

Passion et mort de Louis XVI

Annie Duprat

Cet article se propose de faire un retour sur l'hypothèse des sept morts de Louis XVI formulée par Claude Langlois en 1993. Examinant la polémique menée, par les textes et les images, par les royalistes eux-mêmes, il démontre la force des références anglaises, d'une part, catholiques, d'autre part, dans l'inspiration de leurs auteurs. Le récit dramatisé des faits qui se sont déroulés à Versailles les 5 et 6 octobre 1789 contribue à nourrir l'imaginaire de la violence. Enfin, l'analyse fine de la caricature Grand combat à mort (1792) permet de saisir le rôle du bestiaire dans une caricature politique. De ce livre ressort une nouvelle image de Louis XVI: il est devenu un Christ des temps modernes, souffrant une Passion pour le salut de la France.

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Randolph Miller

Claude Langlois, “Une romanisation des pèlerinages? le couronnement des statues de la Vierge en France dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle” [A romanization of pilgrimages? The coronation of statues of the Virgin in France in the second half of the

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Jean-Marie Mayeur, La Séparation des églises et de l’État (Paris: L’Atelier, 2005). 3 Claude Langlois, Le Catholicisme au féminin: les congrégations françaises à supérieure générale au XIXe siècle (Paris