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Duress and Messianism in French Moyen-Congo

Meike J. de Goede

occupation in Moyen-Congo ( Duriez 1950 ). 3 When Matsoua died in 1942, he was immediately buried in the prison graveyard in Mayama. The fact that none of his followers had seen Matsoua’s corpse was, and still is, proof for them that he had actually not died

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(Mis)Leading the Reader

Decolonising Adventure Comics in Baruti and Cassiau-Haurie's Le Singe jaune

Alicia Lambert

other means of expression? Or is it possible to appropriate subversively the ones that have historically dehumanised them? Barly Baruti, a Congolese artist who has studied and worked both in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Belgium, 1 has

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The Medium Is the Message

Olivier Schrauwen’s Arsène Schrauwen beyond Expectations of Autobiography, Colonial History and the Graphic Novel

Benoît Crucifix and Gert Meesters

Olivier Schrauwen and make it clear that a story about the Belgian Congo in his hands might result in something very different from the usual well-documented colonial story. In 2014, at Fantagraphics, Olivier Schrauwen published Arsène Schrauwen , in

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Enjoying an Emerging Alternative World

Ritual in Its Own Ludic Right

André Droogers

Ritual can be rehabilitated in its own right by emphasizing what it has in common with play: the ludic evocation of a simultaneous shadow reality. What is more, ritual can be understood as an enjoyable form of playing with realities. More than a solemn occasion, useful because of its social and cultural functions, ritual is a festive enactment of a counterreality. Connectionist ideas on the parallel processing of schemas and repertoires lend themselves for mapping the properties of ritual in its own ludic right. The human mind allows for a rapid comparison by the parallel—and not serial or sequential— processing of alternative schemas for thought, action, and emotion. An ethnographic illustration is taken from a boys’ initiation ritual among the Wagenia (Congo).

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Translocated Colonial Subjects in Collaboration

Animals and Human Knowledge

Pushkar Sohoni

state backing in the case of the Congo, and the third was a state operation toward military ends. While there are other examples, such as the large baggage trains of the British Indian Army drawn by cattle and oxen in Mesopotamia in World War I, these

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Maleficent Fetishes and the Sensual Order of the Uncanny in South-West Congo

René Devisch

Diversely echoing Gail Weiss (1999) and Paul Stoller and Cheryll Olkes (1987), I hold that maleficent fetishes that sustain lethal sorcery shape and enact, yet pervert, their proper contours of embodied interactions and transactions. These interactions are being absorbed and consumed, if not devoured, by the sensual order of the uncanny and by forces of abjection. From my immersion in the life of the Yaka people in Kinshasa and south-west Congo, I am aiming at some endogenous understanding of how interacting bodies – or more precisely, intercorporeal awareness – can conform to (attune to) and become subordinated to (and implicated by) the frenzy of the transgressive and annihilating ‘forces’ mobilised by maleficent fetishes and lethal sorcerous violence. I contend that the mysterious field of sorcery and maleficent fetishes among the Yaka seems to foster among complicitous pairs some pre-reflective and interpersonal awareness of their body in the fold of (embracing) images, fantasies, experiential gestalts and desire of sorts. This primary entwinement of (inter)corporeal capacities, ‘forces’, cultural expectations and horizons of significance may help us to comprehend innovatively the sensual articulation of a genuine epistemology and a groping for moral economy in the very mood of transgression and perversion. This merging of desire, intercorporeality and sensing out of things paradoxically ties in with the pursuit as well as the obliteration of ethics. Such intermingling shows up in people’s manifold search to tame or, for other purposes, to stir up forms of unsettling, rupture, paradoxes, indeterminacy, categorial and ontological aporias, perversion or even destructive violence.

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Competing Visions

The Visual Culture of the Congo Free State and Fin de Siècle Europe

Matthew G. Stanard

The visual culture of the Congo Free State (CFS) is significant because of the role imagery played in the history of the Congo during the era of Leopoldian rule (1885–1908), and because of the degree to which images shaped understandings of the

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Ridiculous Empire

Satire and European Colonialism in the Comics of Olivier Schrauwen

Robert Aman

's renowned 1899 novella Heart of Darkness . In ways comparable to Conrad's blending of his own experiences in the Congo with fantasy, Schrauwen's comic imaginatively explores his grandfather's time in colonial Africa after the Second World War. Although

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"Our Future Is Already in Jeopardy"

Duress and the Palimpsest of Violence of Two CAR Student Refugees in the DRC

Maria Catherina Wilson Janssens

Introducing Two Student Refugees: Euloge and Le Firmin I met Euloge in May 2014 in Kinshasa. At that time, I was preparing for my trip to north Congo and hoped to access the refugee camps in that area. I was applying, therefore, for a research

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Avoiding Poison

Congolese Refugees Seeking Cosmological Continuity in Urban Asylum

Georgina Ramsay

on their existential sense of being as understood through cosmological logics. Fieldwork and Research Settings Between August 2012 and March 2014, I conducted ethnographic fieldwork with refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. As an