bulwark against Islam, not Protestantism. 46 The Maltese had no need to reaffirm solemnly and polemically the cult of saints and their relics to differentiate themselves from Protestant reformers. In regions subject to the Counter-Reformation, the
In 1578, a same-sex community that gathered in a church, performing marriages between men, was discovered in Rome. Documentary evidence now verifies this story, reported by many sources, including a passage of Michel de Montaigne's Travel Journal, but which was for a long time denied by scholars. While briefly reconstructing this affair, this article explores the complex emotional regime surrounding the episode. In particular, it argues that those who participated in the ceremonies did so not only as an expression of affection for their partners, but also in an attempt to legitimize their relationships in a rite that imitated the Counter-Reformation sacrament of marriage. This approach challenges the predominant historiography on the birth of homosexuality and helps us to better understand the sentiments of those who were part of a same-sex community in Renaissance Rome.
Religious Propaganda and the Representation of Truth in the 1580s
In the early 1580s religious propaganda was used extensively and ferociously to inform (or misinform) that sector of the English public that had access to such works about events involving a number of Catholic priests and sympathisers and their opponents. This period saw a major episode of crisis over counter-Reformation Catholicism, exemplified by the mission to England headed by Edmund Campion, and the consequent arrest, torture, trial and execution of Campion and his associates. Numerous texts were produced from a variety of perspectives to intervene in the representation of these men, their motives, the treatment they received, and the danger they may or may not have posed to Protestant England. The propagandist texts with which I am concerned range across the various possible positions on these and other Catholic priests.
Annabel Brett, Fabian Steininger, Tobias Adler-Bartels, Juan Pablo Scarfi, and Jan Surman
is how this came into being that his archaeology sets out to uncover in its opening move. That move takes us, in the first of four chapters, to the Catholic political thought of Counter-Reformation Spain. Those descriptors are mine, not Palti's, and I
Concepts of Emotions in Indian Languages
arising and floating in the interaction between them. 21 These assumptions are linked to a development that started in Western Europe with the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, both of which accorded a religiously motivated importance to the
Happiness and Care of the Self in Sir Kenelm Digby's Letter-Book In Praise of Venetia
to consider Venetia's death as the end of their relationship. While such rejection of death as a closure might be viewed as a distinctive feature of Catholic soteriology, particularly in the light of Counter-Reformation insistence on the importance