—money, debt, and economic growth—have been largely undertheorized by classical economists, which has consequently obscured, unintentionally or otherwise, vulnerabilities in our political economy and seriously distorted economic policy. To understand our
The definition of what precisely we mean by poverty is controversial. Yet empirical evidence establishes firmly that both the gap between the richest and the poorest countries in the world has been widening (as measured in terms of per capita GDP) since 1960, and that since independence a number of the very poorest countries in the world have experienced negative growth in per capita GDP. Regardless of whether one is concerned with relative or absolute conceptions of poverty, therefore, it is difficult to argue that poverty has not become a problem of greater urgency.
A Case Study of Pakistan
Syed Shahbaz Hussain and Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri
This article analyzes and explores what policies Pakistan adopted to tackle its environmental challenges, effects and outcomes. The research consists of an overview of Pakistan's national environmental policy development and explains the motives and reasons to understand in what context the state formulates these policies. It also makes assessments and evaluations about to what extent policies are successful in achieving their objectives. The study suggests some implications of the Pakistan experience to cope with the global challenges of environmental protection.
Economy and industry have traditionally been major stakes within the Franco-German relationship. This article examines French and German economic and industrial relations, and their importance for these countries' joint leadership in Europe. It investigates the level of economic interdependence and of macroeconomic convergence between the two largest Eurozone economies, industrial cooperation between French and German companies, discrepancies in their trade relations and investment flows, divergences in their respective economic and industrial policies, and the dichotomy between partnership and rivalry in their long-standing relationship. Finally, this article assesses the risk of increasing fiscal and industrial imbalance between the two economies and draws conclusions on its implications for the Franco-German entente in Europe.
Operational Landscapes, Urban Desire, and the French State, 1945–1976
The story of postwar France, of les trente glorieuses , is typically imagined as a story of economic growth and urban modernity. At the end of the Second World War, France was still a largely rural and agricultural nation. Farming employed a full
Institutions, Education and Elite Formation
development and the interaction between political history and modern economic growth. It is a stimulating and ever-expanding literature, which has its roots in the new institutional economics pioneered by Douglas North (1990) and the public choice framework
An Anthropological Investigation into Narratives as a Source of Enquiry in Development Planning
example of it for future development projects. In order fully to apprehend the context within which economic growth has taken place, the IGO hired me to do a five-week study of the historical, social and economic factors that have contributed to CBC
similar trade surplus from British imperial imports to Germany. 35 German industry and agriculture recruited migrant labor from a wider area each year. 36 Other powers did not inhibit German economic growth. Colonies offered nothing that Germany could
Collective responses to shrinking water access among farmers in Arequipa, Peru
Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen
the urban landscape links up with the general shift in productive and economic activity that Peru is experiencing, informed by a national narrative that defines progress in a narrow idiom, emphasizing economic growth through extraction of minerals
This issue of Theoria addresses its organising theme, science and civilisation, in a broad and multifaceted way. The contributions range in scope from explorations of the relationship between the scientific and humanist worldviews, through identity formation in the context of ‘advanced’ technological societies, to questions of epistemology, culture, power and the institutional determinants of economic growth and prosperity.