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The Mendès France Milk Regime

Alcoholism as a Problem of Agricultural Subsidies, 1954–1955

Joseph Bohling

In 1954, Pierre Mendès France committed the state to curbing alcoholism as part of an effort to reorient important agricultural sectors and improve French economic performance, using milk as a symbol of his government's new direction. While Mendès France's milk drinking was often portrayed as the whim of a maverick politician, this article shows instead that it was the expression of a broadly based movement to modernize the economy. Challenging the view of an insular state that exclusively served the powerful alcohol lobbies, this article contends that the success of alcohol reform hinged on Mendès France's ability to overcome parliament and pit other economic sectors and a public health movement against those lobbies. Although it would require the more centralized authority of the Fifth Republic to implement lasting reforms to the alcohol sector, the Mendès France government helped raise public awareness about the purported link between alcoholism and agricultural subsidies that kept uncompetitive producers on the land at the taxpayer's expense.

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The Rise of the Anglo-Saxon

French Perceptions of the Anglo-American World in the Long Twentieth Century

Emile Chabal

This article attempts to reconstruct a genealogy of one of the most ubiquitous terms in contemporary French politics: the Anglo-Saxon. It traces the emergence of the term in the second half of the nineteenth century and examines its numerous meanings through the twentieth century. Rather than assume that references to the Anglo-Saxon have been little more than straightforward forms of anti-Americanism or Anglophobia, it suggests that the term has been mobilized in specific debates, both as a reflection of French decline and as an alternative “model“ to which France should aspire. A study of the notion of the Anglo-Saxon thus offers insight into how the French have imagined two of their most prominent global competitors and how they have come to terms with the consequences of social and economic modernization.

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Bato-Dalai Ochirov

A Buryat Activist at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Robert W. Montgomery

Abstract

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a native intelligentsia took shape among Siberia's Buryat Mongols that, combining indigenous and Russian influences, pursued cultural survival alongside social, political, and economic modernization. One of its significant, yet relatively unsung, members was Bato-Dalai Ochirov (1874 or 1875–1913). He is best known as the only Buryat ever to serve in the Russian State Duma (in the short-lived Second Duma in 1907). Yet over the course of his short life, Ochirov also was an administrator, political activist, author, philanthropist, and supporter of culture and science. This article provides an overview of Ochirov's life and seeks to elucidate his worldview, which stressed the defense of Buryat interests using the possibilities available within the existing autocratic order.

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James Bryce's Political Analysis of Mexico's Porfirian Regime

Itzel Toledo García

(1888). Both Díaz (president 1876–1880, 1884–1911) and Manuel González (president 1880–1884) were committed to achieving political stability and the economic modernization of the country. Together, their governing periods are known as the Porfiriato

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Two Paradigmatic Views on Right-Wing Populism in East Germany

Jonas Rädel

per capita GDP in 2017, for instance, was some 26 percent lower than the average west German figure. Coeval unemployment was also rather higher at 7.6 percent in the east and 5.3 percent in the west. 19 Hence, the process of economic modernization

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Introduction to the Journal of Bodies, Sexualities, and Masculinities

Jonathan A. Allan, Chris Haywood, and Frank G. Karioris

, economic modernization, and cultural transformations, as well as by the will for change represented by the everyday choices of countless millions” (2007: 109). The impact of such shifts has been realized in the form of broader social and cultural

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Empowering or impoverishing through credit

Small-scale producers and the Plan Chontalpa in Tabasco, Mexico

Gisela Lanzas and Matthew Whittle

in Mexico. This comprehensive management initiative sought economic modernization and industrial development of the region through hydroelectric energy production and agricultural development, following the scheme of development modeled by the

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Book Reviews

Aaron Freundschuh, Jonah D. Levy, Patricia Lorcin, Alexis Spire, Steven Zdatny, Caroline Ford, Minayo Nasiali, George Ross, William Poulin-Deltour, and Kathryn Kleppinger

—and therefore on the country's economic modernization. Officials discouraged the practice, of course. They just hesitated to attack it with too much energy, and inevitably ran into interference from the wine lobby and their allies in the National Assembly. Part

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Gramsci in and beyond resistances

The search for an autonomous political initiative among a subaltern group in the Beninese savanna

Riccardo Ciavolella

as they try to choose between economic modernization and pastoral activities and between personal affirmation and community development. In the concluding section, I analyze the political initiatives that emerge on a local and community basis

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Manufacturing a Multifunctional Countryside

Operational Landscapes, Urban Desire, and the French State, 1945–1976

Venus Bivar

items required for economic modernization. However, given that the productivity of French farmers lagged well behind that of their European neighbors, the French agricultural sector had to be brought up to speed. In advance of the creation of the common