Although it is not much mentioned in the scholarly literature, the school shows up as an important motif in both volumes of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America. Tocqueville distinguished between civic education, which he saw as crucially important to the survival of democracy, and scholastic education, which could threaten it. There is a tension between these educations, which becomes clearer upon noticing Tocqueville's support for the political doctrine of freedom of education, which was so important in French politics during the July Monarchy (1830-1848). The source of this tension lies in Tocqueville's understanding of the American social condition and decentralized administration as being amenable to civic education, while centralized France precluded it. This tension is mediated, the article suggests, by Tocqueville's perception of the essential religiosity of French society.
Naomi C.F. Yamada
In both China and in the United States, policies of 'positive discrimination' were originally intended to lessen educational and economic inequalities, and to provide equal opportunities. As with affirmative action in the American context, China's 'preferential policies' are broad-reaching, but are best known for taking ethnic background into consideration for university admissions. The rhetoric of China's preferential policy discourse has remained surprisingly constant but shifts to a market-economy and incorporation of neoliberal elements have resulted in fee-based reforms that discourage inclusion of poorer students. In addition, as ethnic minority students principally from Western China compete to enter 'self-funded' college preparatory programmes, public funding is being directed towards the achievement of 'world-class' universities overwhelmingly concentrated in Eastern China. In contrast, in the United States, the difficulty of defending affirmative action in the face of a neoliberal climate has resulted in a shift in policy. If in China the policy remains even as the 'rule' has changed (Arno 2009), in contrast, in American institutions the rhetoric has shifted away from affirmative action in favour of diversity but efforts to hold on to the rules that promote equal opportunities remain.
An explicit marketisation and national profiling of Denmark as an attractive country for foreign students has resulted in an increasing number of students from poor countries in the global South, including Nepal, being admitted to Danish colleges and universities. The influx of students from these countries has led to several accusations against them of using enrolment in educational institutions primarily as an entrance point to the Danish labour market. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among Nepalese students in Denmark this article addresses the intersection of internationalisation of higher education and immigration policy in a Europe with tightened immigration rules for certain nationalities.
Supporting students’ experiences through praxis
Heidi A. Smith
In recent decades, higher education across the world has restructured itself to meet the needs of global competitiveness and embraced the knowledge economy ( Krause-Jensen and Garsten 2014 ). Through embracing ‘information technology
Gender at Play
In 2001, in an effort to reform preschool and elementary education, the Québec Ministry of Education implemented the Québec Education Program (QEP), which mandates play in early learning. In 2015, I carried out a study to investigate how this
Educational Film in Interwar China
educational film begin to be widely advocated as a new educational tool by government officials and educators. Before the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, educational film was one of the most popular tools for mass education and was used
This article identifies a series of educational characteristics, such as place and level of education attained by individuals, their fields of specialization, and the knowledge of languages. The focus is on members of the Jewish Agency for Palestine—a leading organization of the Yishuv—during the British Mandate (1921-1948). Elite educational variables were potentially significant in a number of different ways: ensuring greater political effectiveness, establishing and promoting stronger ties with the people among whom elite members lived, articulating and communicating of political messages, and so on. This article claims that educational traits have been significant in facilitating the eventual realization of the Zionist project.
Prisons, Sanctions, and Education
Examining two Israeli cases, this article addresses the highly controversial question about the privatization of state authority. The first concerns the Supreme Court decision that prohibits private prisons, a ruling that reflects the deep-rooted assumption that criminal punishment is a matter of state authority. The second case refers to the Israeli religious organization Takana Forum, which seeks to handle sexual offenses committed by authoritative figures within its community. The relation between privatization, privacy, and multiculturalism is presented as potentially perpetuating patriarchal authority in family life, education, and punishment. Following this discussion, different models of privatization based on the nature of the respective privatized authority are presented. The article concludes with an analysis of the conflict between communal and state law and its potential effect on Israel's collective co-existence.
In the latter half of the twentieth century, higher education systems around the world expanded and the number of higher education institutions increased. This expansion is often referred to as a massification of the higher education system ( Trow
The case of a Swedish course for professional principals
context of higher education, and from a pedagogical praxis perspective, this recognition of the importance of reflection has created a need to develop reflective learning environments for aspiring or practising professionals. From the perspective of