While national government elections are perceived as first order institutions that result in relatively high turnout rates, local elections are viewed as second-order institutions and are usually characterized by low turnout rates. We claim that this behavior is conditioned by the stakes that voters associate with elections as well as the voters' relative position in the socio-ethnic stratification structure. In this article we show that such conditions may yield an inversion in voters' perspectives. In other words, voters who are alienated from national government institutions and who are effectively mobilized by leaders of their socio-ethnic groups, which have high stakes in second-order institutions, tend to invert their preference with regard to the significance of elections. In such instances, national elections become second-order elections, and local elections become first-order elections. We use ballot-box level data from two national and two local elections in Israel to test this theory.
The Israeli Case
David Nachmias, Maoz Rosenthal, and Hani Zubida
The 2007 presidential elections have been the most important in France since 1981 because they provoked ruptures in the way the state and the French political system function. These ruptures, which this essay explores, include: the structural advantage the Right now has over the Left in national elections; the extension of the president's power and role in the regime; the transformation of the French political parties system into bipartism; and, finally, evolution inside the two major French parties due not only to the personality, ideas and choices of their respective candidates but also to the growing role of the president in the regime and its effects.
Coverage of the 2017 Bundestag Election
Alexander Beyer and Steven Weldon
The 2017 Bundestag election likely will long be remembered as a pivotal moment in German politics. 1 The far-right and openly anti-immigrant Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) not only entered parliament for the first time
Vincenzo Emanuele and Nicola Maggini
The importance of the 2016 municipal elections in Italy was a consequence not only of the number and relevance of the cities involved, including Rome, Milan, Naples, and Turin, but also of their timing, occurring in the middle of the 2013–2018 electoral cycle. These elections were thus perceived as a mid-term test for the national government, acquiring a relevance that went beyond their specific local context. This chapter analyzes the electoral supply, voter turnout, electoral results, and vote shifts, focusing on a synchronic and diachronic comparison of the performance of the candidates and the parties. The evidence presented shows that despite winning the plurality of municipalities, the Democratic Party clearly paid the cost of ruling at the national level. The number of its mayors was halved, and it was defeated in Rome and Turin by the Five Star Movement, the true winner of these elections.
Nicolas Sarkozy's victory in the 2007 French presidential elections represents a true rupture: rupture with years of political apathy, rupture with what was an escalating rise of political protest, rupture with a "law" that since 1981 seemed to require that every outgoing majority be beaten. Sarkozy's electoral victory was substantial. It was built on a notion that what the French were looking for was a strong sense of direction, and it gave rise to a dynamic of striking change right after the election (a political opening to the left, a shift in presidential style, disarray in the Socialist Party, and the marginalization of the National Front).
Consensus-Building, Party-less Politics and a Culturalist Critique of Elections in Northeast India
Jelle J. P. Wouters
It was potentially scandalous that while voters lined up behind polling booths in the village of Phugwumi, someone wrote the following phrase in the dusty rear window of a nearby parked car: ‘Election is an insult to each other by vote’. Phugwumi is
Paula Booke and Todd J. Wiebe
Politicking in the digital age The study of elections is a core element of the discipline of political science and an important component of introductory courses. This course content provides students with opportunities to encounter and discuss core
The European elections of May 2014 proved to be a key trial run for several actors within the Italian party system. Academic literature on these elections has often viewed European Parliament elections as “second-order” elections, that is, as expressions of opinion on the incumbent national government. This chapter analyzes whether this model still applies. It shows that the European Parliament elections were an unusual form of second-order election, in that they allowed voters to reward the Renzi government, which was still enjoying a honeymoon period.
Small Parties in the 2017 Bundestag Election
David F. Patton
Small German parties achieved unprecedented success in the 2017 Bundestag election. 1 Leading the pack, the Alternative for Germany (AfD) took 12.6 percent of the vote to finish third, marking the first time since the Federal Republic’s founding
Silvia Bolgherini and Selena Grimaldi
The regional elections that were held in May 2015 have confirmed the changes that have recently been taking place in the politicalparty system in Italy: the end of the bipolar system and the emergence of a third pole consisting of the M5S. The tripolarism at the regional level can be attributed not only to the success of the M5S, but also to the loss of salience of the center-right and the disappointing performance of the center-left. In terms of the political offer, this election round showed an increase in party fragmentation and the average number of candidates and a greater variability in the number and type of coalitions than in previous contests. In terms of results, it showed a greater dispersion of the vote between the candidates for the presidency and identified the M5S and the LN as the two axes on which the new balance of power in the regions is centered.