redesigned by Almjeld’s mentee, the first author, Jen England ( Almjeld and England 2015 ). Despite its evolution, GRTC’s mission has remained to help overcome the digital divides that negatively affect many young girls by providing safe mentoring spaces in
Exploring Girlhood Identity in Technology Camp
Jen England and Robert Cannella
An Atypical Case of Anti–Wind Farm Contention
This article explores a case of wind-farm siting contention situated around the picturesque village of Marden in the county of Kent, (the garden of) England. Though analysis of wind energy siting conflict is not new (e.g., Gipe 1995: 118
The Administration of Rape in Twenty-First Century France and England & Wales
Nicole Fayard and Yvette Rocheron
In France and England & Wales rape is now understood as a diverse social phenomenon. It is reported, counted, categorized, and dealt with by the authorities as a serious crime. Yet, despite notable initiatives intended to improve the conviction of alleged perpetrators, major hurdles for alleged victims remain. We show how rape is defined and prosecuted in France and England & Wales, and we use statistical analyzes to understand the scale of the problem, still largely unknown. We also discuss recent controversies (attrition rate;loicadre), exploring a culture of scepticism among police and judiciary that causes complaints to be dropped or downgraded to lesser crimes. Our interview material from France explores two difficulties: When is rape not rape? Did the alleged victim consent to the penetration? Finally we analyze the paradoxical role played by voluntary victim support groups that resist but also collude with a complex regulatory system that fails those who do not speak in legitimate codes.
Starting with the observation that there is a failure in an English language of “difference” associated with travel and trade in the late sixteenth century, this article explores the nature and consequences of that failure. Particular emphasis is placed on conversion—the evaluation and acceptance of an “alien” body into the Anglican community—and an analysis of John Foxe's A sermon preached at the christening of a certaine Iew (1578) and Meredith Hanmer's The Baptizing of a Turke (1586). Diplomatic and travel texts are considered to demonstrate the use of an earlier lexicon of heresy alongside contemporary ideas concerning the equivalence of Roman Catholicism, Judaism, and Islam. In the last decade or so many scholars have identified problems with the critical language in which these issues are discussed, in particular the notion of early modern England and its “others”. In evaluating the failure of a language of “difference,” this article suggests an alternative critical vocabulary.
Contexts and Problems
The history of reading in early modern England is elusive and teasing – offering glimpses of readers but rarely a detailed view of how they read; posing more questions than answers. In part this is because the history of reading is still a relatively new field of enquiry, and our knowledge of reading practices in the period is slowly accruing piece by piece. In the last two decades especially, the history of books and reading has undergone a transformation: reading practices have increasingly been located in terms of their cultural specificity; particular readers, reading acts, and libraries in early modern England have been brought to light; the material histories of books and the ‘sociology of texts’ have inspired new directions in bibliography, while research into manuscript culture has revealed specific readers and annotators at work.1 As Robert Darnton suggests, the history of books and reading is not so much a field of study as ‘a tropical rain forest. The explorer can hardly make his way across it’, criss-crossing tracks between academic disciplines and different caches of evidence.2 Sources relating to readers, reading acts, and reading practices in early modern England are vast and disparate, scattered across a myriad of genres, fields, and disciplines – from fiction to the documents of social history; from written texts to physical artefacts; from the literary to the non-literary; from print to manuscript. The sheer range and inconclusivity of much of this material demands that we make careful distinctions between sources for a history of reading, and confront the methodological challenges they pose. This special issue on Reading in Early Modern England stems out of a Shakespeare Association of America seminar in 1999 on the topic.3 In this short essay I do not attempt to provide an introduction to the history of reading in early modern England, but instead to voice issues raised by the seminar in relation to three key areas: women’s reading, social differentiation, and textual transmission.
A View from Natural Philosophy
ecclesiastical authorities started using innovation in discourse. In 1548, Edward VI, King of England and successor to Henry VIII, issued a Proclamation Against Those That Doeth Innouate . The proclamation places innovation in context, constitutes an admonition
This Orient Isle: Elizabethan England and the Islamic World , by Jerry Brotton ( London : Allen Lane , 2016 ), 384 pages. In September 1600, the Moroccan ambassador Abd al-Wahid bin Masoud bin Muhammad al-Annuri proposed ‘a formal military
Ian Mahoney and Tony Kearon
). These experiences are not isolated, and, like other deprived postindustrial cities in England and Wales, the populace still overwhelmingly voted to leave the EU—the very source of the limited economic support that has come in to the region, and the city
This article examines the development of popular discourses of liberty as independence emerging from the struggles between peasants and landlords over the course of the late medieval and early modern periods. This discourse, relating to the aspirations of the dependent peasantry for free status, free tenure, and free labor, articulated a conception of independence that overlapped with the emerging republican discourse of the seventeenth century. However, whereas republicanism focuses almost exclusively on the arbitrary powers of the monarchical state, the popular tradition emphasizes freedom from the arbitrary powers of landlordism. After a brief introduction to the republican conception of liberty and a discussion of the dependent peasantry in England, the work of Gerrard Winstanley is presented as an innovative synthesis of popular and republican discourses of freedom as independence from the arbitrary powers of exploitation.
The culture of class politics in contemporary Britain
This article explores the legal precedent of the case of Mandla versus Dowell-Lee (Mandla v Dowell-Lee 1983) to explain how the far right British National Party mobilizes ethnic strategies and specifically the category of “indigenous Britons,“ to turn post-colonial multiculturalism on its head and thereby disavow the realities of a post-industrial, multiracial working class in Britain. The article argues that the historical moment in contemporary Britain is characterized by a shift away from the politics of social class toward collective organization and sentiment based on ethnicity and cultural nationalism. Drawing on ethnographic and historical research, conducted between 1998 and 2000 on the post-industrial Docklands of Southeast London, the article explains an exceptional local area case study, which proves the rule about the growth in influence in the first decade of the twenty-first century of far-right politics in post-industrial urban areas of Britain.