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John Oucho

English abstract: This article traces the evolution of regional integration in East Africa, discussing its nature, scope, triumphs, and challenges. It reviews the Protocol on the Establishment of the East African Community Common Market (PEEACCM), which develops aspects of free movement policy that were implicit in earlier editions of the EAC regional integration. The article then addresses the several challenges that exist to free movement in the EAC as it endeavors to usher in the larger Southern and East Africa COMESA–EAC–SADC Tripartite Agreement and even wider continental-level coordination. It concludes that a managed migration policy rather than free movement might be more appropriate.

Spanish abstract: Este artículo traza la evolución de la integración regional en África del Este, discutiendo su naturaleza, alcances, triunfos y desafíos. Se revisa el Protocolo para el Establecimiento del Mercado Común de la Comunidad de África del Este (conocido como Protocolo de Mercado Común), el cuál desarrolla aspectos de la política de libre circulación que estaban implícitas en las previas ediciones sucesivas a la integración regional en la Comunidad de África del Este (CAE). Posteriormente, el artículo aborda los diversos desafíos que existen para la libre circulación en la CAE en contraste con los esfuerzos de la misma CAE por ser la vanguardia en el amplio Acuerdo Tripartita COMESA-CAE-SADC, que abarca países del sur y del este de África, y en la coordinación a nivel continental aún más amplia. El autor llega a la conclusión de que una política de gestión de la migración en lugar de libre circulación podría ser más apropiada.

French abstract: Cet article retrace l'évolution de l'intégration régionale en Afrique de l'Est (AE), en discutant de sa nature, de sa portée, des succès et des défis qui se posent à elle. Il examine le Protocole portant sur la création du Marché commun d'Afrique orientale communautaire (PEACCM en anglais), qui développe des aspects de la politique de libre circulation qui étaient implicites dans les éditions précédentes des accords d'intégration de l'AE. L'article aborde ensuite les nombreux défis qui se posent à la libre circulation dans la CAE, comment les CAE s'efforcent également d'inaugurer la plus grande Afrique australe et orientale de l'Accord tripartite COMESA-EAC-SADC et de la coordination encore plus large au niveau continental. Il conclut qu'une politique de gestion des migrations pourrait être plus appropriée que la libre circulation.

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The War of Legs

Transport and Infrastructure in the East African Campaign of World War I

Michael Pesek

This article describes the little-known history of military labor and transport during the East African campaign of World War I. Based on sources from German, Belgian, and British archives and publications, it considers the issue of military transport and supply in the thick of war. Traditional histories of World War I tend to be those of battles, but what follows is a history of roads and footpaths. More than a million Africans served as porters for the troops. Many paid with their lives. The organization of military labor was a huge task for the colonial and military bureaucracies for which they were hardly prepared. However, the need to organize military transport eventually initiated a process of modernization of the colonial state in the Belgian Congo and British East Africa. This process was not without backlash or failure. The Germans lost their well-developed military transport infrastructure during the Allied offensive of 1916. The British and Belgians went to war with the question of transport unresolved. They were unable to recruit enough Africans for military labor, a situation made worse by failures in the supplies by porters of food and medical care. One of the main factors that contributed to the success of German forces was the Allies' failure in the “war of legs.”

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Relating Muscat to Mombasa

Spatial Tropes in the Kinship Narratives of an Extended Family Network in Oman

Zulfikar Hirji

This study calls for a reintegration of space and relatedness in anthropological theories of social formation. It is based on the examination of spatial tropes in the kinship narratives and discursive practices of an extended Swahili-speaking family network historically located between Oman and coastal East Africa.

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Speaking Back, Striking Back

Calls for Local Agency and Good Fieldwork in Development Encounters

Eugenie Reidy

This article explores local agency in development anthropology, a prominent form of applied anthropology that has encouraged refl ection on the practice of anthropology itself (Mosse 2013). Drawing on specifi c fieldwork experiences from time the author spent working for the United Nations and international NGOs in East Africa, it discusses several complexities and moral questions that arose. In particular, it focuses on the challenges for local perspectives to be represented, given the subjective interests in which development encounters are embedded. It also looks at instances where ‘speaking back’ does occur, and where it arguably becomes ‘striking back’. In light of this, the article discusses what can be mutually exchanged between development and anthropology, with a particular focus on the accommodation of local agency and participation, and the need for fieldwork approaches based on suffi cient time, trust and positionality.

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Adam Branch

The African Studies Centre has been a privileged institutional form in Britain for knowledge production on Africa since the end of colonialism. This article argues that the origin of these UK centres should be located in the colonial research institutes established in Africa, in particular the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute and the East African Institute of Social Research. Attention to the knowledge about Africa that was deemed authoritative by these institutes as well as to the institutions and structures underpinning that knowledge production can raise important questions about today’s centres that need to be addressed as part of a decolonization agenda.

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Faith in Schools

Toward an Ethnography of Education, Religion, and the State

Amy Stambach

In a major transformation of our times, governmental organizations are increasingly turning to faith-based groups to provide basic public services, including education. Faith-government partnering derives its power symbolically from a higher order than the secular state; the secular world of technical education is metaphorically encircled and uplifted by sacrilized forces. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Tanzania and in the United States, and on analysis of education policy documents and reports, this article argues that faith-based governmental programs operate by a logic of hierarchical encompassment, a logic by which state education discourses of accountability, efficiency, and standards first supercede and transform the ideal of religious-moral education, defining all citizens as equally protected before the law, and then reinstate religious- moral instruction as a higher order value that, in turn, encompasses technically trained citizens through an ethic that values religion, spirituality, and faith in one God.

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Richard Vokes

This article responds to Michael Herzfeld's call for anthropologists to develop a new form of 'reflexive comparison' by imaginatively casting the peoples of the African Great Lakes as part of Melanesia. Specifically, it explores how notions of personhood and sociality in this African setting might be understood through interpretative approaches developed in the New Melanesian Ethnography of the 1970s and 1980s. It finds that this sort of thought experiment yields key insights by focusing analytical attention upon concepts of shared vital substances, upon practices intended to control the flow of these substances, and upon the agency of non-human actors (especially cattle) in shaping these processes. An examination of these features suggests new perspectives on a range of ethnographic 'problems', from condom use to Rwanda's ubuhake cattle exchange.

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Becoming an Agricultural Growth Corridor

African Megaprojects at a Situated Scale

Serena Stein and Marc Kalina

Agricultural growth corridors (AGCs) have begun proliferating across the actual and policy landscapes of southeastern Africa. Cast as an emerging megaproject strategy, AGCs combine the construction of large-scale logistics (i.e., roads, railways, ports) with attracting investment in commercial agribusiness and smallholder farming. While scholars have long attended to spatial development schemes in the Global South, literature on the rising AGCs of Africa’s eastern seaboard has only recently shifted from anticipatory to empirical studies as policy implementation reaches full force. The article reflects on a new crop of studies that confront the problem of tracing policy imaginaries to the people, places, practices, and ecologies shaped by AGC schemes. In contrast to scholarship that accepts corridors as given entities, we explore directions for research that interrogate the grounded yet provisional becoming of these megaprojects. At such sites, the return of high modernist development logics encapsulated by the corridor concept may be questioned.

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John R. Campbell

This article explores the relation between theory and method in three methodologically innovative studies of rural poverty. The issue is pertinent because the nature of research on poverty has shifted from small-scale qualitative studies to large surveys, and to national-scale studies that combine qualitative and quantitative methods in an effort to inform policy makers on appropriate poverty reduction strategies. The interest in combined methods holds considerable promise for poverty research because it links a search for 'objective' economic concerns to the analysis of 'subjective' and context-specific issues. It is instructive to examine recent studies of poverty that have pursued different theoretical and methodological choices with a view to understand how 'theory' influenced methodological choices, and whether and how such choices influenced their understanding of poverty.

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Andrew Lattas, Anni Kajanus and Naomi Haynes

Donald M. Nonini, ed., A Companion to Urban Anthropology (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014), 532 pp. ISBN 9781444330106.

Maximilian P. Holland, Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship: Compatibility between Cultural and Biological Approaches (North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace, 2012), 334 pp. ISBN 9781480182004.

Richard Vokes, Ghosts of Kanungu: Fertility, Secrecy and Exchange in the Great Lakes of East Africa (Suffolk: James Currey, 2013), 256 pp. ISBN 9781847010728.