This article elaborates on the connection between hygiene/cleanliness and the bureaucratic control of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. It discusses the role of stigmatisation in constructing immigrants' perceived backwardness and weakness, which necessitate guidance. The analysis also demonstrates the patronisation of immigrant women through inspection of their tidiness as mothers and housewives. The case of the Ethiopian immigrants, who began arriving in Israel at the beginning of the 1980s and still immigrate, will be used to suggest that the bureaucratic regulation of immigrants, rather than racism or cultural differentials, is behind the integration process. Moreover, the similarities between the absorption practices applied towards immigrants from Ethiopia and those from Muslim countries in the 1950s will be discussed in terms of the bureaucratic patronage over immigrants in Israel.
formal organizations, and possessed long-term perspectives on the political activities of the Ethiopian immigrant community. In terms of the interviewees’ socio-economic profile, they all resided in central Israel, were between the ages of 40 and 50, and
Encounters in the Public Space
This article discusses the reactions of Israelis in the public space to 'mixed families' that include members of Ethiopian origin, written from the perspective of members of such families. The findings reveal that Israelis still react to the dark skin color of Ethiopians in mixed families and that, in most cases, 'black colors white', that is, behavior toward the mixed family is determined mainly by the presence of its black member. The three typical responses are as follows: (1) expressions of surprise at the presence of an Ethiopian in the family, evincing a stereotypical view of Ethiopian immigrants and their place in Israeli society; (2) invasions of privacy that are perceived by the family members as greatly exaggerated when compared with Israeli norms; and (3) declarations of appreciation for/admiration of the 'white' partner in the family for 'lifting up' the 'black' person through a (supposedly) altruistic act. The major conclusion is that Israeli society has yet to accept mixed families that include Jews of Ethiopian origin as a normative category.
minority, constituting less than 2 per cent of the population. The black groups in Israel conduct themselves as separate communities – Ethiopian immigrants, African refugees, Hebrews, black Bedouins and black Palestinians – nullifying the chance of
Tair Karazi-Presler, Moti Gigi, Luis Roniger, Yossi Harpaz, Oded Adomi Leshem, Meir Elran, Dany Bahar, and Yuval Benziman
includes topics addressing the ethno-social tapestry of Israel, ranging from Russian to Ethiopian immigrants to the Palestinian minority; the relations between religion and state; ethnic and social inequalities; feminism; and the discontinuities shaped by