Mercifully the destruction of the European Jewish communities was not total, and at the close of the conflict about 20 per cent of the original population remained to face the future. In some countries, such as France, a high proportion of the total population survived, while in Britain the community was totally spared. Russian Jewry, though continuing its prewar isolation and despite losses from the German occupation, still lives on as a numerically substantial part of the Jewish people. The troubles in North Africa and the Middle East have forced an immigration from those areas into the European continent.
Vol. 1 No. 1 Summer 1966
Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus, and Katja Mäkinen
The idea of heritage has gained new political momentum in a postmillennial Europe that has faced various political, economic, social, and humanitarian challenges and crises that influence how Europeans deal with the past, present, and future and
Soon after the collapse of communism, women's rights and gender equality became hotly debated issues in Poland, particularly as they were linked to different interpretations of what the transition to democracy ought to mean. In the context of conservative arguments linking Poland's “return to normalcy” with a return to traditional gender roles and relating feminism to the “foreign” socialist order, women's NGOs and networks in Warsaw started to creatively re-frame their arguments within the terms of Polish tradition. At the same time EUropeanization of gender discourses provided another contested register in which women's rights activists had to negotiate their claims. This article explores how concepts of gender and feminism in Poland have become objects, as much as effects, of powerful political debates, describing a discursive field where national self-understandings and values are negotiated in the context of transition and EU accession. It provides an ethnographic account of the central role played by notions of gender and feminism in imaging democratic citizenship and in producing new subject positions in postsocialist Poland.
Examining the Alternative for Germany in European Context
Following the long-term rise and recent electoral boost of radical-right populist parties across Europe, the Alternative für Deutschland (Alternative for Germany, AfD) became the third strongest party in the 2017 general elections for the
The Benelux and the Nordic countries compared
other small states, it can be possible for these countries to achieve more important international reputations, respect and status than what they could have received individually. European small states have rich experiences of sub-regional cooperation
Cultural Policy in the Making of Europe
This article considers the development of a European Union (EU) cultural policy and its role in the making of Europe. One of the aims of cultural policy is the fostering of specific identities. Although normally associated with the state—the community thus 'imagined' being typically the nation, with the nation-state the prime actor of interventions on cultural matters—in the last 20-30 years, decentralisation on the one hand and Europeanization on the other have undermined the state monopoly of cultural policies, calling for a reconsideration of their rationale, objectives, and reach. This article contributes toward such reconsideration, concentrating on the Europeanization dimension. It is based on an account of how the EU is gradually establishing a competence in the field of culture and on a closer investigation into how its framework program, Culture 2000, has been implemented and interpreted in a local context.
An outcome of the EUropeanization in rural Lithuania?
Ida Harboe Knudsen
This article focuses on small-scale farming in Lithuania in light of the country's European Union (EU) entrance in 2004. Although the EU, together with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, had encouraged a rapid privatization of the former collective farms, the result was not an economically viable farming sector, but a multitude of unspecialized farms run by ageing farmers with but a single cow. These farmers are now viewed as the main obstacle to further development and are encouraged to retire. However, the farmers have proven reluctant to do so. Looking at different attempts to reduce the number of small farms, the article analyzes how the outcomes of the EU programs often are quite different from what was originally intended. Such processes are coined as EUropeanization: a term that embraces how the EU is interpreted and implemented in daily life by the farmers.
Who Embodies europe? Explorations into the Construction of european Bodies
Anika Keinz and Paweł Lewicki
Is there a ‘european body’, 1 and how is europeanisation embodied? What is a ‘european body’ then? Jean Comaroff (1993) has once shown that: ‘nationality, culture and physical type are condensed into the language that [ … ] would mature
Vasiliki P. Neofotistos
independent nation-state in 1991 after the dissolution of socialist Yugoslavia. 1 This mood emanated from the qualification of the men's national basketball team for the semifinals of the European Basketball Championship (aka EuroBasket) in Lithuania. During
Ulrike Guérot and Michael Hunklinger
In spring 2020, Europe was struck by a virus. COVID-19 has paralyzed the European Union and the political turning point of the COVID-19 crisis will drag on Europe—on the EU—for a long time to come. The EU displayed a bad picture, at least in the