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Protestant and Jewish Philanthropies in France

The Conseil National des Femmes Françaises (1901-1939)

Yolande Cohen

Focusing on the history of the Conseil national des femmes françaises, composed mainly of Jewish and Protestant women, this article shows how women's philanthropies played an important role in defining the scope and the type of welfare policies concerning mothers and children in France in the first half of the twentieth century. Their version of laïcité raises also several questions: did the religious question recede behind the social question? What role did the different religious distinctions continue to play in shaping welfare measures during the Third Republic? What was their role in defining the meaning of laïcité for social policies at this time? This paper shows that the main French social policy of allocations familiales, adopted in 1932, is the product of intense tensions between Church familialism and state maternalism. Catholic familialism promoted the home as the center of women's activity, lobbied against women's professional work, and refused any intervention of the state in family affairs. State maternalism, promoted primarily by religious minorities and some nonreligious feminists, wanted state intervention in protecting mothers and children. These deeply convinced republicans sought to change family laws and improve family morals. If these Protestant and Jewish philanthropies succeeded in defining the mainstream of laïcité during the first thirty years of the Third Republic, they failed to have a bigger impact on social legislation when the big leap to a national family allowance system was established in 1932.

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Social Quality as a Tool for Policy Analysis

The Place of Children in Family Policy

Yitzhak Berman

This paper will consider the use of social quality as an analytical tool for the study of social policy, with special emphasis on the social quality of children placed within the framework of family policy. The paper’s main focus is on the relationship between parents and children as expressed through family policy. Two central themes are addressed. The first concerns the expectations from the relationship of parents and children as expressed through family policy, and how these policies enhance the social quality of children. The second theme asks the question whether social quality is a useful tool for policy analysis, and is based on a case study analysing a European family policy document.

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From Family to Reconciliation Policy: How the Grand Coalition Reforms the German Welfare State

Angelika von Wahl

For decades conservative welfare states have reformed reluctantly. To understand recent family policy reforms in Germany we must add institutions and economics to any account of politics. This article focuses on the grand coalition of CDU/CSU and SPD formed after the 2005 Bundestag election. Two opposed assumptions pertain to grand coalitions: one holds that a coalition of parties with different ideologies will act according to the lowest common denominator resulting in policy inertia. The opposite holds that grand coalitions enable policy change because constraints are removed by the supermajority. This article develops five conditions for successful reform, arguing that traditional family policies directed at the protection of motherhood are shifting towards reconciliation policies that emphasize labor market activation and increased birth rates. The shift indicates 1) that even conservative states have the potential for bounded reform; and, 2) that agency—particularly partisan and coalitional interests—needs to be considered more seriously.

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The Office de la Famille Française

Familialism and the National Revolution in 1940s Morocco

Margaret Cook Andersen

the 1920s and 1930s, they nevertheless sought a more extensive family policy and hoped that the advent of the new Vichy regime would make this possible. In 1941 these ambitions were realized with the creation of a distinctly colonial administrative

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the familial compensation tax to help fund the FFO and in this way support other French families. Keywords : Morocco, Vichy, family policy, pronatalism, settlers Nadia Malinovich , Francophonie and Sephardic Difference in the Postwar United States

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A Return to Fashion

Revisiting the German Model

Gregory Baldi

parallel evolution is made particularly clear in Green and Turner’s considerations of developments in social insurance and family policies. In tracking the cdu / csu social insurance policy, Clay Clemens argues that the past twenty years have been

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Men and Masculinities under Socialism: Toward a Social and Cultural History

Peter Hallama

facilitating access to divorce. 33 For Katherine Verdery, this “usurpation of allocative decisions” by the socialist state strengthened what she has called “socialist paternalism.” 34 Sheila Fitzpatrick, as well, described Soviet family policies and

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Financing Gender Equality

Budgets for Women's Policies in German and Austrian Länder

Ayse Dursun, Sabine Lang, and Birgit Sauer

former East Germany), and the years 2000, 2011, and 2018. 41 Data were assembled to reflect the core budgets for the women's and gender equality policies of wpa . The goal was to unpack targeted investments in women's equality aside from family policy

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From Don Juan to Comrade Ivan

Educating the Young Men of the Urals for Love and Marriage, 1953–1964

Brendan McElmeel

put the ideal of love-based marriage into policy has a more fraught history. Early Bolshevik leaders saw the secularization of family policy and the overturning of traditional hierarchies, including the subordination of women to their husbands and his

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The Best of Times, the Worst of Times

Angela Merkel, the Grand Coalition, and “Majority Rule” in Germany

Joyce Marie Mushaben

force in relation to post 2009 family policy reforms and antidiscrimination legislation, for example. 20 Let us juxtapose political styles and instruments deduced from roughly forty-five years of male rule in Germany against seven “soft skills