Architecture and landscape constitute key aspects of fictional realistic drama in film and television. In fictional films whose plots take place on Israeli kibbutzim, on-site cinematography is a central means of achieving a realistic and dramatic portrayal of the communal settlement and its social space. In this article, we investigate five productions filmed on location at Kibbutz Yakum. We argue that these filmic representations of architecture and landscape reify the image of the kibbutz as an introverted society that denies individuals their privacy and upholds the centrality and presence of community. By comparing the actual sites with their presentation in films, we show that the physical space of the kibbutz was filmed selectively in a manner that immortalizes its communal, 'classical' image, which in reality no longer exists. The kibbutz's transformation from a communal to a privatized society is purposely veiled in these films, preserving the kibbutz's established image.
Kibbutz Landscape and Architecture as Represented in Film and Television
Kibbutz Yakum as a Case Study
Amir Har-Gil and Inbal Ben-Asher Gitler
“Violence Is a Many-Splintered Thing“: The Importance of Realism, Justification, and Graphicness in Understanding Perceptions of and Preferences for Violent Films and Video Games
Ron Tamborini, René Weber, Nicholas David Bowman, Allison Eden, and Paul Skalski
Historically, debates over media violence have been a central focus of media research. Yet lacking from these debates is a meaningful discussion about the conceptualization of media violence. We argue that violence is not a monolithic construct, and is based on viewer perceptions of specific types of images and framing in media content. This idea has scholarly precedence: In 2002 and 2003, Potter and his colleagues proposed that perceptions of violence are formed as audience members make assessments about the relative levels of (in order) graphicness, realism, and justification for witnessed, on-screen violent actions. This article furthers this tri-partite conceptualization by using a binary-choice conjoint analysis to determine the role of each attribute in guiding audience perceptions of and preference for violent media in film and video games. For both media types, justification was the most central factor in shaping perceptions of violence, but realism was the most important predictor for the preference of violence.
Mapping Narrative Space in Hollywood Film
James E. Cutting, Catalina Iricinschi, and Kaitlin L. Brunick
This article presents a new method to create maps that chart changes across a cinematic narrative. These are unlike narrative spaces previously discussed in the literature—they are abstract, holistic, dynamic representations based on objective criteria. The analysis considers three films (All About Eve, Inception, and MASH) by counting the co-occurrences of main characters within scenes, and 12 Angry Men by counting their co-occurrences within shots. The technique used combines the statistical methods of correlation, multidimensional scaling, and Procrustes analysis. It then plots the trajectories of characters across these spaces in All About Eve and Inception, regions for characters in Inception and MASH, and compares the physical arrangement of jurors with their dramatic roles in 12 Angry Men. These maps depict the changing structures in the visual narrative. Finally, through consideration of statistical learning, the article explores the plausibility that these maps mimic relations in the minds of film viewers.
Avi Nesher, director, Image of Victory (Bleiberg Entertainment and United King Films, 2021), 128 minutes. Avi Nesher's 2021 film Image of Victory returns to Israel's 1948 War of Independence through the battle of Kibbutz Nitzanim
The Denk ich an Deutschland Films of the Two Andreases from the East: Kleinert's Bewildering Berlin and Dresen's Stagnating Uckermark
Launched in 1998 on the eve of the eighth Day of German Unity, the Denk ich an Deutschland television film series was intended to reframe discourses on national identity formation in a positive light through documentaries focused on the present rather than on the dark German past. While Andreas Kleinert's Niemandsland (No Man's Land, 1998) and Andreas Dresen's Herr Wichmann von der CDU (Vote for Henryk!, 2003), the first and last films televised, do center on the present, they highlight dissonances between personal and national concerns. Still, Kleinert deconstructs the dissonances and artificial syntheses he himself invents in order to reveal them as constructs to be reconfigured by viewers. By showing the inability of politicians to bridge the gap between personal and national concerns due to the erosion of their private identities, Dresen also appeals to viewers to initiate needed societal changes themselves.
The Feel-Good Film
Genre Features and Emotional Rewards
Keyvan Sarkhosh and Winfried Menninghaus
The label “feel-good film” has been widely used in recent discourse on cinema ( Brown 2015 ; Burnetts 2009 ; Egan and Leder Mackley 2013 ; Hjort 2010 ; Rees 2015 ). At the same time, despite some efforts to arrive at a clear-cut concept of
The Neuroscience of Film
Vittorio Gallese and Michele Guerra
imagery (for a review, see Gallese 2014 ; Gallese and Guerra 2020 ). This logic can be applied to film reception, as several theories have proposed and suggested since the very beginning of film history. When watching films, what we see is not only the
Films and Existential Feelings
The philosopher Matthew Ratcliffe (2005 , 2008 ) introduced the concept of “feelings of being” or “existential feelings” into the philosophy of mind. In this article, I show how this concept is relevant to film and media studies, focusing on
Black and White on the Silver Screen
Views of Interracial Romance in French Films and Reviews since the 1980s
This article explores French attitudes about race during and after the years of the National Front's breakthrough by looking at French films and film reviews on the topic of interracial couples. In a country in which antiracists have been reluctant to legitimize the concept of race by talking about it, but in which the far Right has made gains by proclaiming its own views on race, French film-makers in the 1980s and after broached the topic in numerous films, but they often did so in ways that avoided controversy or serious reflection on current French racism. French critics of both French and American films featuring interracial couples also sidestepped the most explosive issues, revealing a disinclination to discuss a troubling and divisive concept, but also a persistent belief that racism remained an American problem and obsession.
The iAnimal Film Series
Activating Empathy Through Virtual Reality
. I present a case study of the iAnimal series produced by Animal Equality (U.K.), which made its public debut at the Sundance Film Festival in 2016 with its first VR documentary short film, Factory Farm (2016). This twelve-minute film guides