Many historical cities are built alongside rivers. Floodplains were attractive sites for urban expansion. However, the flood events since the 1990's have shown that many urban settlements are under flood risk. This research investigates how flood management and land use planning policies have changed after high water and (near)floods in the Netherlands, Germany, and France. In particular, it investigates how changing policies affect the development of urban riverfronts. Policy documents have been analyzed from all three countries and case studies illustrate the impact of changing policies on concrete developments.
Jos Spits, Barrie Needham, Toine Smits, and Twan Brinkhof
Why are recent attempts to give space to the rivers so unsuccessful? Floodplain management is a complex social process with many stakeholders, who pursue different rationalities before, during, and after floods. The resulting patterns of activities of the stakeholders have led to a technological lock-in. This article uses Cultural Theory to analyze the stakeholders' different framing of floodplain management. The concept of Large Areas for Temporary Emergency Retention (LATER) is then introduced as a way to create space for the rivers. Its implementation can be facilitated if the different rationalities, framing the patterns of activity in the floodplains are taken into account. Therefore, based on interviews with landowners, water managers, land use planners, and policymakers the rationalities are uncovered and different proposals for land policies are presented. The result is a land policy based on an obligatory insurance against natural hazards.
and supporting agriculture on the lower river floodplain, and those who managed military fortifications and frontier colonization on the middle course. As increasingly intensive forestry, grazing, and farming on the middle course released more sediment
Hydro-Logical Design for the Ecologically Responsive City
, initial decelerator, and distributor. Those at lower elevations may contribute to floodplain storage and may be closely tied to the ecological functioning of nearby urban waterways. As with a “passive” or natural approach to energy use and the provisioning
Attila Tóth, Barbora Duží, Jan Vávra, Ján Supuka, Mária Bihuňová, Denisa Halajová, Stanislav Martinát, and Eva Nováková
Hora I n.d.). Other allotment sites survived because of their location close to rivers, floodplains, and flood-prone areas where building development is prohibited, as in the allotment site of Kačinec in Ostrava (CZ) or several allotment sites in Nové