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Gal Raz and Talma Hendler

This article reviews significant developments in affective neuroscience suggesting a refinement of the contemporary theoretical discourse on cinematic empathy. Accumulating evidence in the field points to a philogeneticontogenetic-neural boundary separating empathic processes driven by either cognitive or somato-visceral representations of others. Additional evidence suggests that these processes are linked with parasympathetically driven mitigation and proactive sympathetic arousal. It presents empirical findings from a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) film viewing study, which are in line with this theoretical distinction. The findings are discussed in a proposed cinematographic framework of a general dichotomy between eso (inward-directed) and para (side by side with)—dramatic cinematic factors impinging on visceral representations of real-time occurrences or cognitive representations of another's mind, respectively. It demonstrates the significance of this dichotomy in elucidating the unsettling emotional experience elicited by Michael Haneke's Amour.

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Gal Raz, Giancarlo Valente, Michele Svanera, Sergio Benini, and András Bálint Kovács

correlates of shot-scales ( Figure 3 ): first, fMRI data was collected from healthy volunteers while they were watching at least one of these clips. Second, we applied a machine-learning approach on this data and developed a computational model that

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Ted Nannicelli

advanced by art historians Alois Riegl and Heinrich Wölfflin. To do this, they apply a machine-learning model to neurological data supplied by a set of fMRI scans. Methodology is the explicit topic of our third article, by Jose Cañas-Bajo, Teresa Cañas

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Uri Hasson, Ohad Landesman, Barbara Knappmeyer, Ignacio Vallines, Nava Rubin, and David J. Heeger

This article describes a new method for assessing the effect of a given film on viewers' brain activity. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during free viewing of films, and inter-subject correlation analysis (ISC) was used to assess similarities in the spatiotemporal responses across viewers' brains during movie watching. Our results demonstrate that some films can exert considerable control over brain activity and eye movements. However, this was not the case for all types of motion picture sequences, and the level of control over viewers' brain activity differed as a function of movie content, editing, and directing style. We propose that ISC may be useful to film studies by providing a quantitative neuroscientific assessment of the impact of different styles of filmmaking on viewers' brains, and a valuable method for the film industry to better assess its products. Finally, we suggest that this method brings together two separate and largely unrelated disciplines, cognitive neuroscience and film studies, and may open the way for a new interdisciplinary field of “neurocinematic” studies.

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David Davies

identified in macaques. Luca Turella and colleagues (2009), for example, question whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have demonstrated within reasonable doubt that exactly the same brain area is

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Jeffrey M. Zacks, Trevor Ponech, Jane Stadler, and Malcolm Turvey

limitations of fMRI for drawing conclusions about the response properties of individual neurons. Although it is possible, with sufficiently clever and careful experimental designs, to test for mirror neuron properties using fMRI and EEG, most studies do not do

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Paul Taberham and Kaitlin Brunick

90 ( 1–10 ), doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.01.007 . 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.01.007 Lingnau , Angelika , Benno Gesierich , and Alfonso Caramazza . 2009 . “ Asymmetric fMRI Adaptation Reveals No Evidence for Mirror Neurons in Humans

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“The physical anxiety of the form itself”

A Haptic Reading of Phil Solomon’s Experimental Films

Hava Aldouby

direction of film theory, recently postulating, on the basis of a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, two distinct modes of cinematic address: one involving “automatic resonance of [a] visceral state,” and the other a “cognitively driven simulation

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The iAnimal Film Series

Activating Empathy Through Virtual Reality

Holly Cecil

an opportunity to care for and heal the person in pain on the other. A growing number of fMRI studies have demonstrated that the same neural circuit that is involved in the experience of physical pain is also involved in the perception or even the

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When the Future Is Hard to Recall

Episodic Memory and Mnemonic Aids in Denis Villeneuve’s Arrival

Hannah Chapelle Wojciehowski

objects on screen, they generally do so with their dominant hand; fMRI scans have revealed that viewers’ left-hemisphere premotor and somatosensory cortices are activated when they watch someone grasping an object (2013: 237). It is interesting to note