This article reviews the history of Israeli football from 1948 to the present and argues that Israeli football is ‘made in Israel’ according to the particular historical opportunities that determine the ‘relative autonomy’ of the game in a given period. The first part deals with a period (the 1950s) in which football was subject to politics, the dominant force in Israeli society at the time. During that period, Israeli football was organized by three sports federations, each affiliated with a different political camp. The second part deals with the period from 1990 to the present, in which football clubs were privatized and players became commodities. The contrast between these two periods highlights how the political-economic milieu set effective limits on the structure and practice of Israeli football.
Amir Ben Porat
James F. Lee
Nettie Honeyball and Florence Dixie founded the British Ladies Football Club (BLFC) in 1894 with the aim to provide football-playing opportunities for girls and young women, but also as a means of making money. Theirs, in effect, was an attempt to create a professional football league for women. Public interest in 'the lady footballers' was enormous, at least in its early stages, and generated considerable attention from the press. Overall, press coverage of the BLFC was negative (football is a man's sport; football is a working-class sport; women are physically incapable of playing the game; women shouldn't appear publicly in bifurcated garments, etc.), with only a few notable exceptions. Did the stance adopted depend on the political leaning of the newspaper? Or were the reporters simply reflecting the social and economic realities of their time, struggling to 'explain' a marginal group - women athletes, or more specifically, middle-class women football players - engaging in a working-class male game? This article examines the press coverage of the BLFC. The double standard evident in the newspaper coverage was, on the surface, as one might expect: if a woman played well, she was a freak, possibly a man in disguise; if she didn't play well, it proved that women shouldn't play football. But on closer examination, the double standard was actually rather nuanced: if she played well and looked the part of a woman, she could be subject to praise; yet if she played well and didn't conform to the standard of feminine beauty, she faced ridicule, and her gender called into question.
This article examines the tension between liberalism and Orthodoxy in Israel as it relates to censorship. The first section aims to explain Israel's vulnerability as a multicultural democracy in a hostile region, with significant schisms that divide the nation. The next section presents the dilemma: should Israel employ legal mechanisms to counter hate speech and racism? The third section details the legal framework, while the fourth reviews recent cases in which political radicals were prosecuted for incitement to racism. The final section discusses cases in which football supporters were charged with incitement after chanting “Death to Arabs“ during matches. I argue that the state should consider the costs and risks of allowing hate speech and balance these against the costs and risks to democracy and free speech that are associated with censorship.
Nicola Porro and Pippo Russo
Italian football officially entered into a phase of permanent crisis in
the summers of 2002 and 2003. The benefits of the “20-year boom”—
which began with the World Cup victory in Spain in 1982 and was
followed by the success of club sides in international play, after meager
results in the 1970s—have been exhausted, resulting in unprecedented
political and economic hardship for Italy’s most important
sport. Recent managerial folly, with clubs spending much beyond
their means, has been followed by an ebb tide of adversity, characterized
by institutional wreckage and an adventurous search for a
new equilibrium. With no solution in sight, the current situation does
not bode well. A marked tendency to protect particular interests, the
emergence of latent internal divisions, the daily delegitimation of
institutional actors, an apparently insurmountable difficulty in realizing
a mature market structure, the incapacity to renew the managerial
elite, and pockets of shady deals creeping into the structures
charged with overseeing the legality and economic-administrative
propriety within the game—these are just a few of the ills that are
troubling the game in Italy.
Anti-corporate, Anti-militarist and Martyrdom Masculinities
Manal Hamzeh and Heather Sykes
This article examines the masculinities of Ultras football fans during and after the January 25th Egyptian revolution, within the interlocking systems of power of neoliberalism, militarism and Islamism. The Ultras' anti-corporate masculinities were strengthened through protests against satellite TV and the Egyptian Football Association, while they also developed anti-militarist masculinities as they protested business elites, Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and Central Security Forces. The Ultras developed martyrdom masculinities due to their shock over the Port Said stadium massacre and subsequent retribution protests. The Ultras may be reiterating hegemonic masculinities operating within the same patriarchal logic of the three regimes. Their grief and shock may be limiting their self-reflexivity and capacity to build coalitions.
Male West African Youth, ‘Waithood’ and the Pursuit of Social Becoming through Football
Christian Ungruhe and James Esson
The popularity of football in West Africa is now so pervasive that even the most inattentive visitor to the area would struggle to overlook the sport’s hypnotic hold over the hearts and minds of children and youth. A journey through any town in the
Modern sport was born at the same time as modern mobility. Sport became one of the biggest promotional tools, first through cycle competitions, then car races. First intended for the wealthy, motor sports soon invited the middle classes to enter into a culture of freedom and social advancement which accompanied new forms of mobility. However, the links between sport and mobility are not restricted to motor sport or publicity. Indeed modern sport is a child of modern mobility, and just as the spread of new forms of mobility played a fundamental role in the passage from rural to urban societies, the transport revolution accelerated the decline of the traditional games and made possible the invention of contemporary sport and of global sports culture and space.
Moments in the History of African-American Masculine Mobilities
experience. 18 Across the United States black boys learn to run away from the police at an early age. 19 Excessive Celebrations Rule 12, Section 3, Article 1 of the National Football League (NFL) rules concerns “unsportsmanlike” player conduct. The
The Westernization of Israeli Football in the Early Twenty-First Century
This article discusses the transformations in Israeli football over the last two decades, exploring the top-down and bottom-up motivations present in local football and characterizing foreign practices as more Western, or even more ‘civilized’, as Norbert Elias would describe it. Yet, the transformations of English and European football over the last three decades suggest that ‘Western’ is not so much a geographic term as it is a political, moral, and social status, one requiring English, European, and Israeli football to make dedicated political and cultural investments in numerous arenas.
Tracking of and Teaching through the On-Field Language Practices of Australian Indigenous Boys
David Caldwell, Nayia Cominos, and Katie Gloede
-field language practices of Aboriginal boys playing Australian football? (2) How can these language practices be used to construct a culturally relevant pedagogy (e.g., Ladson-Billings 1995 ) for boys that draws on contemporary practices in digital literacy, in