One of the most influential thinkers in twentieth-century French intellectual debates, Raymond Aron (1905-1983) spent a lifetime studying Karl Marx. Aron's adaptable interpretations of the German thinker began on the eve of the Second World War, continued in his Sorbonne lectures, and ended in his celebrated Memoirs. Far from being a mere object of derision linked to totalitarian regimes, the "semi-god" provided Aron with an unrivaled stage to promote his own evolving views on an array of critical epistemological and political issues linked to heterogeneous values, historical determinism, class warfare, and the role of Communist parties. Aron cleverly segmented his views on Marx so as to address different audiences and seduce the largest possible number of young people on the side of liberal democracy.
The Marxism of Raymond Aron
Taking as its starting point recent claims that Jean-Paul Sartre's Critique de la Raison Dialectique was written as an attempt to overcome the historical relativism of Raymond Aron's Introduction à la philosophie de l'histoire, the present article traces this covert dialogue back to a fundamental disagreement between the two men over the interpretation of Wilhelm Dilthey's anti-positivist theory of Verstehen or 'understanding'. In so doing it counters a longstanding tendency to emphasise the convergence of Aron and Sartre's philosophical interests prior to the break in their friendship occasioned by the onset of the Cold War, suggesting that the causes of their later, radical political divergence were pregnant within this earlier philosophical divergence.
Catherine Benoît Essais de poétique des jardins by Michel Conan 131
Ralph Schoolcraft III Harnessing the Holocaust: The Politics of Memory in France by Joan B. Wolf
Julien Bourg French Intellectuals Against the Left: The Anti-Totalitarian Moment of the 1970s in French Intellectual Politics by Michael Scott Christofferson 140
Michael S. Lewis-Beck Le Nouveau Désordre électoral: Les Leçons du 21 avril 2002 by Bruno Cautrès and Nonna Mayer
Les échanges entre intellectuels français et hispano-américains au début du vingtième siècle
At the beginning of the twentieth century, numerous Hispano-American writers, who were often also diplomats, arrived in Paris. They established contact with French intellectuals, mainly academics, and participated actively in French intellectual life. The exchanges between these Hispano-American and French intellectuals were based on a common identification with Latinism, a pan-nationalistic ideology developed in Europe and Latin America since the nineteenth century and calling for unification of all “Latin” peoples. Hispano-American elites and intellectuals, looking for a way to federate all Latin-American countries against the power of the United States, and seeking a rapprochement with France for political and cultural reasons, largely supported pan-Latinism. As for their French intellectual partners, eager to reinforce their country's global influence, they conveyed the pan-Latin ideology in the framework of their efforts to promote French cultural presence in Latin America. During the Great War, these cultural and intellectual initiatives concerning pan-Latinism drew the attention of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, leading to their integration in the newly created French international propaganda mechanism.
Tim Huntley, Alistair Rolls, and David Drake
Helen Tattam, Time in the Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel Review by Tim Huntley
Rosemary Lloyd and Jean Fornasiero (eds.), Magnificent Obsessions: Honouring the Lives of Hazel Rowley Review by Alistair Rolls
Emmanuel Barot (dir.), Sartre et le Marxisme Richard Wolin, The Wind from the East: French Intellectuals, the Cultural Revolution and the Legacy of the 1960s Léo Lévy, A la vie Review by David Drake
William Wilkerson, Adrian van den Hoven, and Elizabeth Butterfield
Michelle Darnell, Self in the Theoretical Writings of Sartre and Kant Review by William Wilkerson
Jonathan Judaken, Jean-Paul Sartre and the Jewish Question: Anti-antisemitism and the Politics of the French Intellectual Review by Adrian van den Hoven
Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir A Film Directed by Max Cacopardo Review by Elizabeth Butterfield
Vincent von Wroblewsky
With the publication of Anti-Semite and Jew immediately after the war, Sartre became the one major French intellectual who considered the specific destiny of the few Jews who came back from the extermination camps. Why only Sartre, a Frenchman with a Christian background? He later explained that he was shocked by the heavy but audible silence accompanying the survivors. But many others would have been able to perceive this silence. Why Sartre?
What is anthropology in France about, what is its image, its impact? Where do we come from? Where are we going? Finding answers to these questions would require a whole book. However, in a more modest way, I would like to make a number of observations related to the recent history of the discipline – history that, as we shall see, is inseparable from the general socio-political context and the place that the discipline occupies today in the French intellectual landscape.
It is difficult to imagine a modern writer with more wide-ranging interests than Jean-Paul Sartre, and this is reflected in the articles contained in this issue. The first two, Linda Bell’s “Different Oppressions: a Feminist Exploration of Sartre’s Anti-Semite and Jew” and Vincent von Wroblewsky’s “The Early Sartre and ‘The Jewish Question,’” are inspired by Sartre’s epoch-making Réflexion sur la question juive, which, when initially published in 1946 represented the first reaction of a major French intellectual after the war to the horrific fate suffered by European Jewry, as well as the first postwar reflection on anti-Semitism in general.
There is little doubt that Sartre would have a strong claim to the title of greatest French intellectual of the twentieth century, but what exactly does “intellectual” mean in relation to Sartre? It is beyond both the compass and purpose of this paper to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the debate around the definition and role of “the intellectual.” I will simply dip a toe into these troubled waters by focusing on two dimensions of the term intellectual, namely what I call a socio-professional definition and a political definition.