If the Resistance as a whole is part of French identity, the different types of resistance, among them that of women, do not benefit from the same status. On the contrary, official commemorations of the Resistance are based upon two implicit statements: that the Resistance and the nation are somewhat equivalent— the Resistance being viewed as the uprising of the whole nation—and that to differentiate among the resisters would go against the very principles of the Resistance, its universalism, its refusal to make any distinction in race or origin. The assimilationism that is part of the ideology of the French Republic hinders the recognition of particularisms, whether regional, cultural or gendered.
Women in the French Resistance
Remembering the Occupation in Simone de Beauvoir's Les Mandarins
Susan Rubin Suleiman
Critics generally agree that Beauvoir's novel Les Mandarins, which won the Prix Goncourt in 1954, is an important work of historical fiction, chronicling the lives and loves of left-wing intellectuals in Paris during the years following World War II. In this essay I argue that Les Mandarins is as much about the war as about the postwar, and that its meaning for contemporary readers was deeply linked (even if not in a fully recognized way) to memories of the troubled period of the Occupation. I develop the concept of “ambivalent memory,” as it refers in particular to two of the most problematic aspects of that period: the role of the Vichy government in the persecution of Jews, and the ambiguities and disagreements concerning the Resistance. More generally, the novel raises questions about memory and its inevitable obverse, forgetting. It is from our own contemporary perspective, heavily informed by concerns over memory and World War II, that this aspect of Les Mandarins comes to the fore.
The Rescue, Relief, and Resistance Activities of Rabbi Zalman Schneerson
Does it Count as a Rescue When a Jew Saves a Fellow Jew?
This article explores the relief, rescue, and resistance activities of Rabbi Zalman Schneerson and the Association des Israélites pratiquants (AIP) in Vichy France. The rabbi's prior experience in clandestine activities and spiritual resistance in the Soviet Union served as a training ground for the resistance work he eventually undertook in Vichy. Schneerson and his family were able to shelter, feed, and educate more than eighty children during the war, save at least fifty-three children from deportation, and help smuggle at least thirty-five children to Switzerland. That Schneerson and his family survived and rescued Jewish refugees in Vichy France, a regime that willingly deported nearly half of its foreign Jewish population to death camps, demonstrates that he and his wife Sara were not novices in clandestine work. Indeed, their staunch resistance to Vichy antisemitism was largely a legacy of Hasidic resistance to antisemitism under Soviet rule.
Globalizing the History of French Decolonization
Jessica Lynne Pearson
compelling global approach to the history of the French resistance, see French Politics, Culture & Society 37, 1, special issue on “The French Resistance in Transnational Perspective” (2019), guest editor: Valerie Deacon. 4 A few recent exceptions to the
highlight these same themes in their work. Whereas early histories focused on specific resistance groups, individual resisters, or the resistance activities of one region, newer work has expanded our focus. We continue to use the term French Resistance
An Indochinese Vichy Syndrome?
Remembering and Forgetting World War II Indochina
M. Kathryn Edwards and Eric Jennings
) during the Second World War. To our knowledge, none of France's Resistance or World War II museums features a similar colonial exhibit. 4 Yet the question of resistance and collaboration in French Indochina was a contentious one for many decades, and
Virile Resistance and Servile Collaboration
Interrupting the Gendered Representation of Betrayal in Resistance Movements
demonstrate the political relevance of this theoretical exploration on the example of two French Resistance novels, Joseph Kessel's Army of Shadows and Roger Vailland's Playing with Fire. Published in 1943 and 1945 respectively, the two novels serve as
Colonial Subjects and Citizens in the French Internal Resistance, 1940-1944
Forever, in July 1943, they embraced the same monochrome image of the French Resistance. The nineteen photographs of the Free French in the Fezzan, Libya, Algiers, and the navy all presented white faces, the only exception being a side-shot of Félix Éboué
Jennifer Pitts, William Poulin-Deltour, and Marion Fourcade-Gourinchas
Jennifer Pitts De Tocqueville by Cheryl B. Welch
William Poulin-Deltour French Resistance: The French-American Culture Wars by Jean-Philippe Mathy
Marion Fourcade-Gourinchas Rethinking Comparative Cultural Sociology: Repertoires of Evaluation in France and the United States Edited by Michèle Lamont and Laurent Thévenot
Humanisme et Terroir
In December 1996, the European Union gave its authorization to sell transgenic corn for consumption and cultivation in Europe. Some EU memberstates, notably Austria and Italy, refused to allow any imports of genetically modified organisms (“GMOs” or “OGM” in French). Resistance of that sort was unexpected from France. In Europe, France was originally the country most interested in advancing research and applications in the area of agricultural biotechnology. Before GMOs became a matter of public controversy, France led Europe in deliberate release trials.