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Spanish Imperial Destiny

The Concept of Empire during Early Francoism

Zira Box

The aim of this article is to analyze the meaning of the concept of empire during the first years of the Francoist regime and try to clarify the different meanings that the various political and ideological groups that were part of the dictatorship gave to this concept. As will be explained, it is possible to find two main meanings for the concept of empire. The first one was linked to the notion of Hispanidad and was developed by the Catholic and counter-revolutionary groups; in this case, empire was defined through the Catholic religion and the missionary role that Spain had played in the discovery of America, the moment that marked the beginning of the Spanish Empire. The second meaning was developed inside the Falangist party. It contained fascist values and was linked to an ideal of expansionism that would support specific policies. The aim here is to differentiate these meanings by paying attention to the different contexts in which they were produced.

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Recursivity and the Self-Reflexive Cosmos

Tricksters in Cuban and Brazilian Spirit Mediumship Practices

Diana Espírito Santo

under more ‘evolved’ falanges (phalanxes). 3 According to this spirit, many an Exu has been constrained by Umbanda’s dwindling repertoire of names and is forced to manifest under the better-known spirit categories. Yet this spirit was equally keen on

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War and Memory

The Israeli Communist Commemoration of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1986

Amir Locker-Biletzki

motivated by fear of a Fascist takeover is not mentioned. The lumping together of all the Spanish Nationalists as Fascist disregarded the more nuanced reality, where the Spanish Falange 5 was but one component in Franco’s coalition and government, alongside

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Girl, Interrupted and Continued

Rethinking the Influence of Elena Fortún’s Celia

Ana Puchau de Lecea

’s Section), a branch of the fascist political party Falange, which appeared in 1934 as a reaction to the modern woman. Girls were now considered only in their future roles as mothers and nurturers, and the principal features of national Catholic women were