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Hilary Pomeroy

Alliance Israélite Universelle schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. Thanks to their familiarity with the French language, Jews could henceforth adapt to the French Protectorate established in 1912, although a substantial proportion of

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Moroccan Jews in Modern Times

Orientations and Reorientations

Norman A. Stillman

opportunity in the new emerging sectors of the modern economy. It also gave them a new mobility. Since the modern sector of the Moroccan economy did not really develop until after the establishment of the French Protectorate in 1912, early AIU graduates set

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Debating the “Jewish Question” in Tunisia

War, Colonialism, and Zionism at a Mediterranean Crossroads, 1914–1920

Chris Rominger

of the French Protectorate, drawing on the rhetoric of self-determination, minority protection, and other currents of what has been called the “Wilsonian Moment.” 12 Some even joined the growing Zionist movement. But what were the real stakes of such

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From Forced Conversion to Marranism

Crypto-Jews in Morocco and Their Fate

Paul B. Fenton

extraction and converts of recent date, bearing in mind that conversions to Islam under duress continued to occur as late as 1912 when, during the horrendous pogrom in Fez following the establishment of the French Protectorate, several families apostatised to

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Periphery and Intimacy in Anti-Imperial Culture and Politics

From French Others to Othering Frenchness

Burleigh Hendrickson

outside of metropolitan France (in the Overseas Department of Martinique, French colonial Senegal, and the French protectorate of Tunisia), yet spending significant time in the metropole, the figures explored below were very much operating in imperial

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“Pretty as a Picture”

The Aesthetics of the Picturesque in British Travel Accounts of Tunis (1835–1887)

Imene Gannouni Khemiri

Charles V, and the French Protectorate, (London: Royal Geographical Society, 1889). 6 Though travelers and tourists are slippery categories, I use the term “travelers” rather than “tourists” because the mode of travel of these travelers was individual

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Intimacy, Cooperation and Ambivalence

Social, Economic and Cultural Interaction between Jews and Berbers in Morocco

Joseph Yossi Chetrit

who populated the mountain ranges and the mountain valleys did not always comply with the directives of the central government (known as the Makhzen ) and often rebelled against it. Indeed, and until the establishment of the French Protectorate in

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The Olive Grove of Rome

Romanization and the French Colonial Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Tunisia

Jessica Biddlestone

director of agriculture in the French protectorate, to render the arid soil of central Tunisia productive by recreating the “Olive Grove of Rome.” 2 In an 1893 report, Bourde outlined the colonization scheme and provided a historical rationale for olive

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Introduction

France’s Great War from the Edge

Susan B. Whitney

be imperiled, so too would French success on the Western Front. Chris Rominger's article shifts the forum's focus east to Tunisia, a French protectorate after 1881, and to the “Jewish question” that emerged in Tunisia late in the war and became more

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Prelude to Colonialism

Moroccan Muslims and Jews through Western Lenses, 1860–1912

Michael M. Laskier

subservience attributed to his predecessor. Just as Britain was instrumental in removing Khedive Ismail in Egypt, France was about to accomplish the same in Morocco. On 30 March 1912, Morocco signed the Treaty of Fez establishing a French protectorate over much