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Shakespeare and War

Honour at the Stake

Patrick Gray

chunks of grey, graffiti-spattered concrete and cheer. As I was about to graduate from high school, however, seven years later, I thought I had understood it. The ‘Evil Empire’ had collapsed; in the words of Francis Fukuyama, we had arrived at ‘the end of

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A comforting notion in much recent scholarly work on political regimes is that what, broadly, has come to be termed liberal democracy reflects the normative ‘telos’ of the modern world’s developmental trajectory. Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History and the Last Man stands as an almost iconic, if perhaps somewhat coarsely crafted, statement of this view. Przeworski, Alvarez, Cheibub and Limongi have, in Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990, presented a nuanced, empirically well grounded case for the general relative superiority of liberal democracy as a political framework for richer economies, and as a framework that societies will tend to adopt, with fewer dangers of regression, as they become wealthier. Even the economies of poorer countries—contrary to some earlier views—appear to grow and prosper no better under authoritarian regimes than they do under liberal democratic dispensations, not least with regard to the efficiency of resource allocation. Amartya Sen’s Development as Freedom bears eloquent testimony to the wider social, political and ethical virtues of liberal democracy. After all, liberal democracies promise greater individual freedoms, better protection of rights, and better mechanisms for public policy formation and assessment than do authoritarian or ‘totalitarian’ forms of state. They also do not go to war against one another.

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Politics, Consumption, or Nihilism

Protest and Disorder after the Global Crash

Bob Jeffery, Joseph Ibrahim, and David Waddington

The years since the onset of global recession, circa 2008, have led to an unprecedented rise in discontent in societies around the world. Whether this be the Arab Spring of 2011 when popular uprisings against authoritarian regimes cascaded across North Africa and the Middle East, or the rise of left-wing, anti-capitalist and far-right movements in the developed 'north', ranging from the Indignados in Spain, Syriza and the Golden Dawn in Greece, Le Front National in France, student movements in Quebec, or the allegedly less articulate explosion of rage characterizing the English Riots of 2011, it is clear that Fukuyama's thesis regarding the final ascendency of liberal capitalism (and its puppet regimes in the developing world) was grossly misplaced. In Badiou's (2012) terms we are witnessing 'the rebirth of history', where all bets regarding the trajectories of local and global political economies are off.

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Jean-Paul Gagnon and George Vasilev

union-state ( Fukuyama and Gagnon 2014: 52–53 ; Gagnon 2011) , any democratic regime is actually a blend of different types of governing systems and ideals, and not a product of one uniform template that is copied universally. It is the blend of

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Myra Marx Ferree, Hanno Balz, John Bendix, Meredith Heiser-Duron, Jeffrey Luppes, Stephen Milder, and Randall Newnham

demise of East Germany. He focuses first on Francis Fukuyama’s “end of history” thesis published originally in the spring of 1989. 5 He makes fair points, but he should include Fukuyama’s reactions over the last two decades to attacks on his thesis

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Wolfgang Merkel and Jean-Paul Gagnon

encountering disease—what, for comparison, Francis Fukuyama (2014) has recently been calling democratic decay. “Democracy losing its democratic content” can identify a form of prolonged diffuse crisis and also instances of acute crisis. As a conceptual tool

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Ajume H. Wingo

-governmental social organisations and structures have on, among other things, politics, from De Tocqueville (2000) to Putnam (1995: 65–78 ). 14 Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History (1992) is a prime example. Fukuyama argued that History (in the form of the

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Resist and Revivify

Democratic Theory in a Time of Defiance

Jean-Paul Gagnon and Emily Beausoleil

M. Alexander . Bloomington : Indiana University Press . Enfu , Cheng , and Xie Chang’an . 2016 . “ American Democracy, World Peace, and the China Model—A Critical Analysis of Francis Fukuyama’s ‘At the “End of History” Still Stands Democracy

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David Schweikart

, after my death, some men may decide to establish Fascism, and the others may be so cowardly or so slack as to let them do so. If so, then Fascism will then be the truth of man, and so much the worse for us. 51 Ironically, tragically, Francis Fukuyama’s

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A Critique of Liberal Universalism

The Concept of Secular Philosophical Grounding

Jaan S. Islam

of deliberative democracy engage in the self-defeating nature of their own ethical model. Notes 1 Amongst many modern political observers who believe in a global transformation towards democracy are Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington. See