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Becoming a Gentleman

Adolescence, Chivalry, and Turn-of-the-Century Youth Movements

Kent Baxter

In a section of his 1904 work Adolescence in which he delineates the “true inner purpose and ideal of social organizations for youth,” G. Stanley Hall argues that “[the adolescent’s] very best safeguard and its highest ideal is honor,” whose “best

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Interrogating the Meanings of Dolls

New Directions in Doll Studies

Miriam Forman-Brunell

The articles in this issue demonstrate that dolls are ubiquitous cultural forms central to girlhood and young womanhood. Yet understanding the historical and contemporary significance of dolls is a relatively recent development. Th e age-old trivialization of girls and devaluation of youth cultures led to the customary disregard of dolls as legitimate sources of documentary evidence even among scholars. It was not until the late nineteenth century that changing notions of childhood first gave rise to research on children, and a new appreciation of the meanings of play. In 1896, G. Stanley Hall, the founder of the child-study movement, a professor of psychology, and president of Clark University, co-authored with A.C. Ellis the pioneering, “A Study of Dolls,” in which he argued that doll play taught girls key lessons in femininity and maternity. Although Hall argued that “the educational value of toys was enormous” (160), dolls once again lapsed into scholarly obscurity. It was during the late 1930s that Mamie Phipps Clark, then a Master’s student in psychology, used dolls to study the self-esteem of African American children. Th e subsequent doll studies she conducted with her husband, Kenneth Clark, played a role in the 1954 landmark desegregation decision, yet failed to perpetuate doll research. It was on the (high) heels of Barbie who debuted a few years after Brown v. Board of Education, that dolls became the focus of a lively (and still on-going) discourse among parents and pundits but not among academics about their social meanings in the lives of girls.

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Diederik F. Janssen

Gentleman: Adolescence, Chivalry, and Turn-of-the-Century Youth Movements,” details how the medieval motif of chivalry became, with the endorsement of G. Stanley Hall, appropriated by turn-of-the-twentieth-century youth movements and novel theories of

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Diederik F. Janssen

the eve of G. Stanley Hall’s Adolescence , Wheeler explored character slots beyond those occupied by more conformist male dime protagonists appearing both before (Buffalo Bill, Jesse James) and after (Burt L. Standish’s [Gilbert Patten’s] Frank

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Christopher Pittard

-de-siècle psychologists including T. S. Clouston and Henry Maudsley characterized adolescence as a dangerous period; G. Stanley Hall argued in 1904 that “adolescence is the best key to the nature of crime” (65). This social danger was triangulated through class and gender

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Jay Mechling

young men. Romantic thought in writing, painting, and photography in the nineteenth century idealized the young man ( Greer 2003 ; Oosterhuis and Kennedy 1991 ), and when psychologist G. Stanley Hall “invented” adolescence in 1904 with his massive, two

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Whitney Walton

masculine professions and women's right to vote in Wyoming, Barine expressed approval, even envy, of the advances of eugenics and other scientific progress there. However, she shared with American psychologist and educator G. Stanley Hall (1846–1924) a

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Martin Woodside

privileged white men to fight these challenges, and G. Stanley Hall and Theodore Roosevelt stand out as key figures in her analysis. Parsing Hall’s biography, writings, and lectures, Bederman offers a potent analysis of how the influential psychologist

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When Jackie Coogan Had His Hair Cut

Masculinity, Maturity, and the Movies in the 1920s

Peter W. Lee

behavior. Child expert G. Stanley Hall recommended the military as a “poor man’s university” for instilling severe drills and exercise which makes “this system a great promoter of national health and intelligence” (1904: 223). Apparently the Urban Military