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Attila Tóth, Barbora Duží, Jan Vávra, Ján Supuka, Mária Bihuňová, Denisa Halajová, Stanislav Martinát, and Eva Nováková

Historically, one of the most important and widespread forms of urban gardening is allotment gardening. This form of urban gardening has had a long tradition in all Central and Eastern European countries and is the main object of research presented

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Eamonn Slater and Michel Peillon

This article argues that the physical structure of the front garden and its ecosystem is determined by an ensemble of diverse social and natural processes. The essential social form is that of visuality, an abstract compositional force that provides conventions for assessing objects as well as for reshaping their surface countenance and establishing their location within the garden. Accordingly, the social processes of visuality are materially realized in the labor processes of gardening, while their consumption is mediated through the concrete process of gazing. The identified social processes include the prospect, aesthetic, and panoptic dimensions of visuality. Labor conceives and creates them, while the physical structures and the natural processes reproduce and maintain them beyond the production time attributed to gardening. But they are increasingly undermined by the natural tendency of the plant ecosystem to grow. Consequently, the essential contradiction of the front garden is how the laws and tendencies of the plant ecosystem act as a countertendency to the social forms of visuality. This article demonstrates that beneath the surface appearance, there exists complex relationships between nature and society in this space we call the front garden.

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Vegetables and Social Relations in Norway and the Netherlands

A Comparative Analysis of Urban Allotment Gardeners

Esther J. Veen and Sebastian Eiter

a communal project, increasing bonds in their neighborhood: food growing is used as a means toward that aim. Gardeners in interest-based gardens are mostly motivated by the activity of gardening itself, as well as the resulting harvest: social

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Cultivating Civic Ecology

A Photovoice Study with Urban Gardeners in Lisbon, Portugal

Krista Harper and Ana Isabel Afonso

frames for efforts to promote urban gardening: ecological sustainability, economic rights, healthy food and social cohesion ( FAO 2010 ). Urban gardens are an important arena for civic ecology, defined as ‘local environmental stewardship actions taken to

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Camping in China with the Divine Jane

The Travel Writing of Reginald Farrer

Jeff Mather

Reginald Farrer (1880-1920) was a British writer and gardener who traveled and botanized in the western provinces of China during the early decades of the twentieth century. Farrer is perhaps best known for his contributions to gardening writing and botanical exploration; however, the primary focus of this article is his literary interests, and in particular, the intertexual relationship between his writing and Jane Austen's novels. Although scholarly work has investigated the postcolonial dimensions of Austen's fiction, little attention has been paid to the ways in which Austen's novels literally traveled. This article examines how Austen's fiction provided an unlikely lens for Farrer's view of China's border regions, and investigates both the difficulties and the liberating potential of reading Jane Austen in such an informal imperial context.

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Colette Palamar

While increasing urbanization intensifies the need for ecological restoration in densely populated areas, projects implemented in urban settings are often beset with conflicts stemming from a mismatch between traditional restoration practices and social realities. As ecological restoration practitioners seek to protect and remediate urban ecosystems, I contend that the broad set of principles developed by the environmental justice movement can provide an excellent conceptual framework for integrating social ecologies into restoration plans. Successful integration is constrained, however, by a number of challenges both within the Principles of Environmental Justice and ecological restoration theory and practice. Using a case study of New York City's Green Guerillas community gardening program, I show how the principles can begin to be operationalized to provide an effective grounding methodology for the design, development, and implementation of urban restoration projects.

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The Incredible Edible Movement

People Power, Adaptation, and Challenges in Rennes (France) and Montreal (Canada)

Giulia Giacchè and Lya Porto

Simon-Rojo and colleagues (2015) distinguish two different types of UA according to its economic relevance (commercial category or farming) or not (noncommercial category or gardening). Nathan McClintock (2014) differentiates the common types of UA

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Introduction

Civil Society and Urban Agriculture in Europe

Mary P. Corcoran and Joëlle Salomon Cavin

organizations. Income is generated from voluntary donations and fees charged for talks and tours. IE, on the one hand, embodies the collectivist principle of traditional community gardening, but on the other hand, it has aspirations toward radical activism (more

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From Urban Agriculture to Urban Food

Food System Analysis Based on Interaction Between Research, Policy, and Society

Heidrun Moschitz, Jan Landert, Christian Schader, and Rebekka Frick

of these projects would be classified as “urban food gardening” and three as “urban farms.” A standardized questionnaire was used that had been developed in Working Group Three of the COST Action TD1106 Urban Agriculture Europe ( COST 2017 ). To

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The Politics of Greening the City

The Case of the Bostan of Kuzguncuk, Istanbul

Alice Genoud

difficult to define as urban agriculture. For Mary Pudup (2008) , the community garden must be interpreted as an answer to neoliberal urban policies, the latest of many gardening movements reacting to social and economic crises ( Bassett 1979 ; Lawson 2005