The comparative history of secularization in France and in Geneva can shed fresh light on the separation of church and state in France in 1905 and in Geneva in 1907. Similarities in the timing of events and in the laws of separation in these two settings mask sharp differences in how laïcité was understood and how it was interpreted politically. The establishment of laïcité had neither the same causes nor the same political effects in France and Geneva. Nevertheless, as two examples of "total" laïcisation, the French and Genevan separations of church and state raised the same question about religious liberty and its safeguard by the state. Should a state that is "separate from religion" play an active role protecting the liberty of the different denominations in its territory, or should it uphold a prudent and distanced neutrality?
Une solution pour deux histoires
The Free City of Danzig and the Sovereignty Question
Elizabeth M. Clark
interest in stabilizing the German situation. 6 By upholding Danzig independence, the League could therefore defend itself against accusations that it was trying to extend its power. Geneva was often the battleground between Poland and Germany, with Danzig
Her Life, Erasure, Rediscovery and Recognition as a Key Psychoanalytic Thinker
Geneva, to work at the Rousseau Institute. The Rousseau Institute had been founded by the leading Swiss psychologist and evolutionist Édouard Claparède. He established an approach to education based on natural science and psychological research
(25 September 1927–7 February 2022)
the recently opened Leo Baeck College, obtaining rabbinic ordination in 1961. His first rabbinic post was in Leeds, following which he served an international community in Geneva, and in 1978 was the founding rabbi of the Liberal Jewish congregation
In the past, land agitations have had a clear spiritual and theological dimension. The morality of ownership over land itself is often questioned. Many see land as a community resource, and community ownership is an emergent 'model' of land tenure, both in word and in practice. This project on the role of spirituality and theology in Scotland's modern land reform is linked to research into the spirituality of community regeneration, supported by WWF International in Geneva. The findings show that for contemporary Scottish land reformers spiritual and theological dimensions are very important.
Re-Narrating the Political Life of a Laotian Subject
This essay considers the role of personal, affective history in shaping historiography, and more precisely, a post-colonial history of Laos. Relying on a variety of sources, official and family photographs, US diplomatic documents, telegrams and personal notes, and against the backdrop of multiple losses, this article problematizes the questions of biography and the complex links between the personal and the "historical" by narrating my father's professional trajectory over three decades as a civil servant and career diplomat. Pheng Norindr represented Laos at the 1962 Geneva Conference and became the Laotian envoy to the United Stated during the Vietnam War. His entanglement with French colonialism and Cold War politics offers a point of entry into a Laotian historiography that is critical of a monolithic Western history of Laos.
Rituals of communication and monitoring at the International Committee of the Red Cross
The mandate of the ICRC as granted by the Geneva Conventions is to act as a ‘guardian of International Humanitarian Law’ on the frontlines of conflicts. While its humanitarian relief operations have contributed to its international reputation, this monitoring function is rather unknown to the public. In this paper, I pay specific attention to activities carried out by ICRC delegates to protect various categories of victims in times of war. By focusing on the ways in which delegates interpret the principles (‘neutrality’, ‘impartiality’, ‘confidentiality’) that guide their actions, I seek to decipher the organisation’s ethos and worldview. I highlight the hopes as well as the frustrations and disappointments generated by myriad administrative techniques devised to engage parties to a conflict in a ‘confidential dialogue’ on the conduct of hostilities. Finally, I examine how these techniques, built on the hope in the possibility of communication, are changing as a result of external sources of pressure for ‘evidence‐based programming’, turning personalised case‐based monitoring into a new form of ‘audit culture’ based on statistical evidence. Paradoxically, relying on numbers to realise the utopia of ‘humanising war’ makes the very ‘humans’ who are supposed to benefit from it disappear from view.
(Non)Knowledge Production about Refugee Accommodation Quantifications in UNHCR's Global Trends Reports
. Supplement No.11 (A/7211). New York : UN . UNHCR . 2004 . 2003 Global Refugee Trends . Geneva : UNHCR . UNHCR . 2005 . 2004 Global Refugee Trends . Geneva : UNHCR . UNHCR . 2006 . 2005 Global Refugee Trends . Geneva : UNHCR
Biblical Forms in the Translations of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice to Hebrew
allusion concur? Vengeaunce is myne and I will rewarde: their fete shall slyde, when the tyme cometh (Tyndale Bible, 1526) Vengeance and recompence are mine: their foote shall slide in due time (Geneva Bible, 1560) Uengeaunce is myne, and I wyll