2015, I made a similar argument, suggesting that social movement theory has much to contribute to understanding genocide ( Luft 2015a ). In particular, I argued that the same mobilization mechanisms found in other forms of contentious politics are often
Evidence from Rwanda
Accounts of Genocide in Travel Writing
The massacre sites of Rwanda have become, like Auschwitz or Ground Zero, forms of museums preserved in remembrance. In 1995, Philip Gourevitch traveled to Rwanda to see them, explaining that he wanted to gain some understanding of the recent atrocities. Gourevitch forces himself to look because this enables him to present a detailed journalistic account but, more uncomfortably, he is satisfying his own curiosity, as tourists do. Dervla Murphy's Visiting Rwanda (1998) is a similarly intense account of time spent with NGOs, visiting survivors, and hearing excruciating accounts of the genocide. Such graphic accounts of time spent in a war zone raise issues concerning curiosity about death and sites of atrocity. The writers must address the issue of the extent of their own curiosity and also demonstrate that they have a reason to publish such sensitive matter. Gourevitch and Murphy, therefore, must be aware of a difficult paradox in their work: the intensity of events represented in their narratives makes their accounts more pressing but, as a result, they may be said to profit from the conflict.
History, Politics, and Exile Identity among Rwandan Rebels in the Eastern Congo Conflict
This article analyzes how the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is recalled and described by members of a Hutu rebel group, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) whose leadership can be linked to the 1994 atrocities in Rwanda. The article explores how individuals belonging to this rebel group, currently operating in the eastern territories of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), articulate, contest, and oppose the dominant narrative of the Rwandan genocide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with members of the FDLR in a rebel camp, this article shows how a community of exiled fighters and second-generation Hutu refugees contest the official version of genocide by constructing a counterhistory of it. Through organized practices such as political demonstrations and military performances, it further shows how political ideologies and violence are being manufactured and reproduced within a setting of military control.
This article looks at the significance of local circumstances, including direct encounters between victims and assailants, in the genocide process. In what scholars term “the micropolitical turn in the study of social violence,“ the argument here considers the encounter from the perspectives of both constituent parties. Assailants often acted before they thought, raising questions about the premise of intention and calculation that anchors the defining Article 2 in the United Nations Genocide Convention. Victims in local encounters express in their accounts a recognition of their assailants and describe what amounts to a betrayal of the trust they invested in their compatriots. Expressions of recognition in witness accounts attenuate victims' resentment and recrimination, opening a space that permitted possibilities for postgenocide reconciliation and even qualified forgiveness.
Rachel T. Greenwald
Guenter Lewy, The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Robert Gellately and Nathan Stolzfus, ed., Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001)
Omer Bartov, Mirrors of Destruction: War, Genocide, and Modern Identity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
From Silence to Knowledge and Back Again
beyond the reach of the Nazis: all were forced to confront it, to understand what happened, to grapple with what it meant to be a Jew and a human being after the genocide. One major component of that generational project involved finding a language in
Memory and Music Video in Post-Soviet Armenia
bridge of Sulukh, where volunteer units resisted the Turkish massacres prior to the Armenian Genocide of 1915; and Akhtamar Island, a spiritual center of times long past. Audiovisual indices of a media-saturated modernity, turn-of-the-century heydays of
Methane Extraction in Lake Kivu, Rwanda
immediate aftermath of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsis’ ( Government of Rwanda 2000: 3 ) as its point of departure, and was framed as a ‘reconstruction of the nation of Rwanda and its social capital’ (2000: 10). That is, expanding energy production
A Piece in a Peacebuilding Mosaic
1992 to December 1995 and involved bestial atrocities, the deaths of over 100,000 people, the displacement of 2.2 million, genocide on a scale unseen in Europe since the Second World War, organised mass rape and systematic destruction of cultural