This article investigates the film trailer in a cognitive film analytic perspective. More specifically, the focus is on how it circumvents its ontological tension between both giving and holding back its product—the film—at the same time. The hypothesis is that trailers that follow a classic genre convention seek to sell their products by condensing a range of genre traits, which arouses a specific, intense emotional experience. Most particularly, the trailer chooses to activate the main genre of the film and the corresponding range of emotions by reducing and reordering its often complex narrative. On this basis, compared to the film, the trailer may be viewed as an alternative narrative.
Charlotte Sun Jensen
Eric S. Rabkin
Frankenstein and Dracula represent two different genres in print but only one in film. The emergence of science fiction from the Gothic exemplifies normal public genre development. The translation of the written Frankenstein and Dracula into film exemplifies genre development as an adaptation both to historical moment and to medium. In both the print and film cases, we can see the same mechanisms by which a genre is not only established in the public sphere but in the mind of a reader or viewer, a dialectic process in which the genre forms and informs reading and viewing and potentially, as a genre, is reformed by reading and viewing. Consideration of cognitive mechanisms involved in verbal and visual cognition shows both the interaction and the typical dominance of the visual, although genre, and hence individual works, can be modified by increasing our focus on the verbal.
Genre differentiation is possible by external factors (function, communicative situation) and internal factors (grammar, theme). As the external factors for all 18 texts of the corpus are the same, the article relies on internal factors. The cohesive means of genre identification in this corpus are recurrence, time structure, connectivity, grounding, and lexis. The peculiarity of Koriak genre differentiation consists in a preponderance of narrative structures, which are characterized by a sequential time line with passages in scenic present tense and structures of a theme with a following exemplification.
James E. Cutting and Ayse Candan
This article investigates historical trends of mean shot durations in 9,400 English-language and 1,550 non-English-language movies released between 1912 and 2013. For the sound-era movies of both sets there is little evidence indicating anything other than a linear decline plotted on a logarithmic scale, with the English-language set providing stronger results. In a subsample of 24 English-language movies from 1940 to 2010 the decline in shot duration is uniform across 15 shot classes, a result that supports a broad “evolutionary” account of film change. The article also explores the proportions of these shot classes across years and genres, with the results showing that 25 percent of the decline in shot duration is due to a shift away from shot classes with longer-than-average shot durations towards those with shorter-than-average durations, and 8 percent of the decline is due to the increased use of shot scales in which characters appear larger.
This article is a thought experiment. It constructs ideal types of political representation in the sense of Max Weber. Inspired by Quentin Skinner and others, the aim is to give a rhetorical turn to contemporary debates on representation. The core idea is to claim an ‘elective affinity’ (Wahlverwandschaft, as Weber says following Goethe) between forms of representation and rhetorical genres of their justification. The four ideal types of political representation are designated as plebiscitary, diplomatic, advocatory, and parliamentary, corresponding to the epideictic, negotiating, forensic, and deliberative genres of rhetoric as the respective ways to plausibly appeal to the audience. I discuss historical approximations of each type of representation and apply the combination of representation and rhetorical genres to the understanding of the European Union’s unconventional system of ‘separation of powers’. I conclude with supporting parliamentary representation, based on dissensus and debate, with complements from other types.
This article revisits questions of the embodiment (screen and otherwise) with regard to the most representative first generation hypertext fictions—Shelley Jackson’s Patchwork Girl—in order to show how this new genre’s search for identity takes the form of a programmatic inversion of the principles underlying the Romantic poetics and imagery and of a conscious identification with the forms that established views of literature exiled from its realm. The analysis follows the train of metaphorical oppositions deriving from the contrast that Patchwork Girl sets up between book and hypertext by presenting itself as a derivative of Mary Shelley’s novel embodied in a monster (re)born from discarded pieces (of prose or flesh) as opposed to the beautiful and harmonious body that is the book.
Entre méfiances et défis
Mara Viveros Vigoya
*Full forum is in French
English abstract: This article presents the dilemmas faced in Colombian feminist and gender studies within the framework of the contemporary socio-political context in Colombia, which is characterized by the recognition of the multicultural nature of Latin American societies. The author first examines the process that Colombian feminism has gone through since the 1970s, developing its paradigms of action and reflection, which have become increasingly diverse. Second, the author examines the current position of the social movements of autochthonous and Afro-descendant women in the Colombian feminist debates on the dilemmas and new perspectives that globalization has imposed on social movements.
Spanish abstract: Este artículo se trata de una exposición de los dilemas que se enfrentan a los estudios femeninos colombianos y los que se centran en el género, en el contexto sociopolítico contemporáneo caracterizado por el reconocimiento de la multiculturalidad de las sociedades latinoamericanas. Para ello, primero examinaré el proceso que ha seguido el feminismo colombiano desde los años setenta, desarrollando sus paradigmas de acción y reflexión, cada vez más diversos. En segundo lugar, examinaré la posición actual de los movimientos sociales de mujeres indígenas y afrodescendientes en los debates feministas colombianos sobre los dilemas y las nuevas perspectivas que la globalización ha impuesto a los movimientos sociales.
French abstract: Dans cet article, il s’agira d’exposer les dilemmes auxquels sont confrontées les études féministes colombiennes et celles portant sur le genre dans le contexte socio-politique contemporain caractérisé par la reconnaissance de la multiculturalité des sociétés latino-américaines. Pour ce faire, nous évoquerons d’abord les évolutions que le féminisme colombien a connues depuis les années 1970, en développant ses paradigmes d’action et de réflexion qui sont devenus de plus en plus diversifiés. Nous examinerons ensuite la position actuellement adoptée par les mouvements de femmes autochtones et afrodescendantes dans les débats féministes colombiens à propos des dilemmes et des nouvelles perspectives que la mondialisation a imposés aux mouvements sociaux.
Facts, Fictions and the Invention of a Scientific Discourse in Early Modern Europe
Joan-Pau Rubiés and Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon’s endorsement of travel for the sake of the universal light of knowledge, in his posthumous scientific utopia New Atlantis (expressing his personal aspiration for the foundation of a scientific institution), identifies well the strategic place that travel literature had come to occupy in the culture of early seventeenth-century Europe. Travel literature is certainly not a unique European creation, but its remarkable development throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was crucial in the formation of a specifically Western discourse on human societies, one increasingly organised around a vision of natural and historical diversity but also tied inextricably to universalist assumptions and aspirations.
In the French polemics over the Islamic headscarf, the relationship betweensecularism and sexual equality has sometimes been made out to be an artificialone. The articulation between politics, religion, secularism, and women'srights is examined here over the longue durée. Since the beginning of the secularizationprocess during the French Revolution, a minority has championedan egalitarian conception of secularization. Rivalries between or convergencesof political and religious authorities have driven an ambivalent and not veryequal secularization, creating secular pacts that rely on gender pacts to thedetriment of equality. This dynamic reversed itself beginning in the 1960swith the battle for legal contraception and abortion, which shook one of thevery bases of French Catholicism to its foundation. The headscarf affairsrevealed the egalitarian effects of secularism and favored the elaboration ofthought about secularism in conjunction with sexual equality, which, whateverthe various interpretations of that thought may be, could prove to be anon-negligible benefit.
Steven Sher, Larry Lefkowitz, Erica Adler, Robin Beth Schaer, Richard Fein, Robert Weinberg, Anne Blonstein, Jacqueline Karp-Genre, Marsha Pomerantz and Shirley Kaufman
Finding the Words
The Creation of the World
For Three Killed by Stalin
Bagels without Lox