Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for :

  • "HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY" x
  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Kristian Kristiansen

In this article I examine how long-term economic strategies in the Bronze Age of northern Europe between 2300 and 500 BCE transformed the environment and thus created and imposed new ecological constraints that finally led to a major social transformation and a "dark age" that became the start of the new long-term cycle of the Iron Age. During the last 30 years hundreds of well-excavated farmsteads and houses from south Scandinavia have made it possible to reconstruct the size and the structure of settlement and individual households through time. During the same period numerous pollen diagrams have established the history of vegetation and environmental changes. I will therefore use the size of individual households or farmsteads as a parameter of economic strength, and to this I add the role of metal as a triggering factor in the economy, especially after 1700 BCE when a full-scale bronze technology was adopted and after 500 BCE when it was replaced by iron as the dominant metal. A major theoretical concern is the relationships between micro- and macroeconomic changes and how they articulated in economic practices. Finally the nature of the "dark age" during the beginning of the Iron Age will be discussed, referring to Sing Chew's use of the concept (Chew 2006).

Restricted access

James F. Eder

English abstract: Degradation and reconfiguration of natural resources in coastal and upland Southeast Asia have set in motion a characteristic process of rural livelihood diversification with significant implications for gender roles and economic well-being. Drawing primarily on case material from the Philippines, this paper explores the transformations in household economies that have accompanied the search for more profitable and sustainable livelihoods and suggests how state and NGO interventions might encourage an entrepreneurial and economically desirable pattern of household-level diversification instead of a debilitating and wage-labor based pattern of individual-level diversification. These interventions include an expanded role for credit; skills training and related forms of support, particularly for women; protection of newly developing household enterprises from competition from large commercial operations; and more consensual and socially equitable forms of environmental governance.

Spanish abstract: La degradación y la reconfiguración de los recursos naturales en zonas costeras y tierras altas del sudeste asiático han impulsado un proceso particular de diversificación de los medios de vida rurales, con significativas consecuencias para los roles de género y el bienestar económico. A partir de una investigación realizada por el autor en las Filipinas, este trabajo explora las transformaciones de la economía de los hogares que han acompañado la búsqueda de medios de vida más rentables y sostenibles. Además, sugiere que las intervenciones del gobierno y de las ONG pueden fomentar un proceso de diversificación de ingresos en la economía de los hogares (household economies), emprendedor y económicamente deseable, en lugar de un modelo de diversificación individual debilitante basado en la relación entre salario y empleo. Estas intervenciones incluyen un rol ampliado de las formas de crédito, capacitacion y otras formas de apoyo, específicos para mujeres, protección de las nacientes empresas familiares frente a la competencia de grandes granjas comerciales, y formas de gobernanza medioambiental más consensuales y socialmente responsables.

French abstract: La dégradation et la reconfiguration des ressources naturelles sur les côtes et les hautes terres de l'Asie du Sud Est ont entamé un processus caractéristique de la diversification des moyens de subsistance en milieu rural, avec des implications considérables pour les rôles de genre et le bien-être économique. Se basant principalement sur des données venant des Philippines, cet article examine les transformations des revenus des ménages qui ont accompagné la recherche de moyens de subsistance plus durables et plus profitables. En outre, l'article suggère de quelle façon les interventions de l'État et des ONG peuvent encourager un modèle audacieux et économiquement souhaitable de diversification au niveau des ménages, au lieu d'un modèle de diversification au niveau de l'individu, débilitant et basé sur la relation salaire/travail. Ces interventions comprennent un rôle accru du crédit, des formations professionnelles et des formes de soutien apparentées (en particulier pour les femmes), la protection des entreprises des ménages tout juste en développement vis à vis de la compétition avec les grandes exploitations commerciales, ainsi que des formes de gouvernance environnementale plus consensuelles et socialement équitables.

Restricted access

The Role of Small-Scale Farming in Familial Care

Reducing Work Risks Stemming from the Market Economy in Northeast Thailand

Shinsuke Tomita, Mario Ivan Lopez, and Yasuyuki Kono

, and TFR has been undergoing a decline. As previous research has pointed out (e.g., Konchan and Kono 1996 ; Knodel and Saengtienchai 2007 ; Rigg and Salamanca 2011 ), the contemporary Thai household economy largely depends on the market economy. In

Free access

Mercedes González de la Rocha and Agustín Escobar Latapí

begin to attend university, the amount of the grant is the equivalent of US$90 per month). Martina’s siblings left school before they could even dream of attending twelfth grade; the household economy made this imperative. Although one of her sisters got

Free access

Linda D’Amico

improve their householdseconomies. Through a series of informal and later formal conversations, we decided to design and conduct a survey – as a means to reflect upon progress and gaps made since the 2007 Plan . One leader pointed out, ‘Rural women have

Restricted access

Misbehaving Women

Trespass and Honor in Late Medieval English Towns

Teresa Phipps

others, demonstrating that marital identity went beyond the partnership of the household economy into the realm of social relationships and sometimes misbehavior. Couples could also be the targets of physical or verbal assaults. Winchester merchants John

Free access

Reclaiming the lake

Citizenship and environment-as-common-property in highland Peru

Mattias Borg Rasmussen

, drivers, or manual laborers in the mines constitute an important part of many household economies. The very same people fighting the Conococha project simultaneously endorsed a new mining operation in a small watershed above Recuay. The main problem is

Free access

Editorial

The Evolution of 20 Years of Social Quality Thinking

children, the younger generation, and older people. Household farming provides preferable conditions for combining work and caregiving. They consider that the subsistence part of the household economy provides preferable conditions for balancing work and

Restricted access

Fair Exchange

Utilisation of Working Animals (and Women) in Ancient Mesopotamia and Modern Africa

Jill Goulder

Nigerian Case Study ’ ( London : Overseas Development Institute, ODI Working Paper 106 ). Bogucki , P. ( 1993 ), ‘ Animal Traction and Household Economies in Neolithic Europe ’, Antiquity 67 : 492 – 503 . 10.1017/S0003598X00045713 Boserup , E

Restricted access

Between Labor Migration and Forced Displacement

Wartime Mobilities in the Burkina Faso–Côte d’Ivoire Transnational Space

Jesper Bjarnesen

resourcefulness ( Cordell, Gregory, and Piché 1996 ). But when Oumar lost his employment in Abidjan, became unable to contribute to the household economy, and cut off regular communication with Fatou, her sense of impoverishment and desolation deepened