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From the Throes of Anguished Mourning

Shi‘i Ritual Lamentation and the Pious Publics of Lebanon

Fouad Gehad Marei

somber youths entered the hall from the adjacent Rawdat al-Shahidayn, a ceremonial cemetery reserved for Hezbollah fighters killed in battles against Israel and, more recently, in Syria. The streets leading to the funerary complex were cordoned off by

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Toward an Anthropology of ‘State Failure’

Lebanon’s Leviathan and Peace Expertise

Nikolas Kosmatopoulos

The sizable amount of academic and policy-oriented literature on socio-political violence in Lebanon could be said to have rendered the country a 'prestige zone' for theorizing on the powerful image of the Leviathan, the Hobbesian idea that a secular social order is achievable only within a strong sovereign state. Building on the insights of the anthropology of the state, this article argues for the necessity of a critical assessment of contemporary expert discourses of 'state failure'. Based on archival research and anthropological fieldwork, the article addresses the metaphor of the failed Leviathan as an empirical question. Overall, it seeks to explore its productivity as an applied expert category and to highlight both the conditions of its construction and dissemination, as well as some of its particular effects.

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Anna Caffarena

In the early morning of 12 July 2006, Lebanese Hezbollah guerrillas

kidnapped two Israeli soldiers on border patrol and killed a further

eight. A similar episode had occurred on 25 June at the Kerem Shalom

kibbutz. Members of the radical wing of Hamas seized Corporal Gilad

Shalit, leading to the death of two fellow soldiers. The government of

Israel’s prime minister, Ehud Olmert, had responded by initiating a

vast military offensive in the Gaza Strip, leading to the arrest of, among

others, 9 members of the Palestinian government and 20 parliamentarians.

The two events were closely related: the Hezbollah leader, Hassan

Nasrallah, stated that the movement, with this gesture, had intended to

support the struggle of Hamas, as well as solicit an exchange of prisoners.

The reaction of Israel was once again expeditious: the “asymmetric”

war lasted 34 days, with over 1,500 dead. The risk of the conflict

spreading—with the indirect involvement of Syria and Iran, traditional

supporters and financiers of Hezbollah—and the diffusion in the Middle

East of a belief in terrorism as an indisputable instrument for the

defense of national causes were evident. In the background was Iraq,

by now subject to increasingly severe convulsions.

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Sheikhs and the City

Urban Paths of Contention in Sidon, Lebanon

Are John Knudsen

( Pall 2013: 20–21 ). Despite internal divisions among Salafists, they seek to uproot Sufism and stop the Shia expansion, which puts them at odds with Hezbollah and Sufi-oriented Sunni groups, leading to contention and violent confrontation. 2 Islamist

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Death of a Statesman – Birth of a Martyr

Martyrdom and Memorials in Post–Civil War Lebanon

Are John Knudsen

solidarity and outward displays of unity and purpose. The best example is Hezbollah’s Martyrs’ Day rally, the movement’s annual commemoration of fighters, cadre and leaders who have been killed on active duty. The martyrs are the movement’s rally point for

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Regime Collapse and Revolution

A Response to John Dunn

Hugo Slim

mobilize the masses and use organized violence as the midwife of deep political transformation in one or many states. The leaders of Hezbollah, the Taliban, Hamas, Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, Boko Haram, and Al-Shabaab understand themselves as

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Conflicts in Children’s Everyday Lives

Fresh Perspectives on Protracted Crisis in Lebanon

Erik van Ommering

north-eastern frontier, terror attacks, divisions over Hezbollah’s military arsenal and support for the Assad regime, recurring sectarian confrontations, volatile conditions in Palestinian refugee camps, frequent violations of the ceasefire on the

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Therese Sandrup

Others Actions In 2006, while the anthropologist Ghassan Hage was preparing for his fieldwork in a South Lebanese village, Israel started to bomb Lebanon. Hezbollah had legitimized the attack as a response to killings and kidnapping of two Israeli

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Gilberto Conde

from Russia, Iran and Hezbollah. However, it was most effective because it combined with the counterrevolutionary goals of those who supposedly supported the uprising—the United States, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Turkey and diverse Sunni fundamentalist groups

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Chava Brownfield-Stein

Gaza-Israel, High-Tech Weaponry, Gender In 2007, Frank Hoffman described the previous year's war between Hezbollah and Israel as “the clearest example of a [conflict featuring a] modern Hybrid challenger” (see Hoffman 2007: 35 ). The Second