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Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh and Francesco Carella

a very popular approach, which applies to both academic analysis and policy work, whether in reference to “South-South migration,” “South-South cooperation,” or others. There is more and more “South-South” going on at the ILO and in the United

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Round table report

Advancing regional social integration, social protection, and the free movement of people in Southern Africa

Lorenzo Fioramonti

The round table on “Advancing regional social integration, social protection, and free movement of people in Southern Africa” was organized as part of the conference “Regional governance of migration and social policy: Comparing European and African regional integration policies and practices” held at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) on 18–20 April 2012, at which the articles in this special issue were first presented. The discussion was moderated by Prince Mashele of the South African Centre for Politics and Research and the participants included: Yitna Getachew, IOM Regional Representative for Southern Africa, Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA); Jonathan Crush, University of Cape Town and Balsillie School of International Affairs, Canada, representing the Southern Africa Migration Program (SAMP); Vic van Vuuren, Director of Southern African ILO; Vivienne Taylor, South Africa Planning Commission; Sergio Calle Norena, Deputy Regional Representative of UNHCR; Laurent De Boeck, Director, ACP Observatory on Migration, Brussels; Wiseman Magasela, Deputy Director General Social Policy, South African Department of Social Development; and Sanusha Naidu, Open Society Foundation for South Africa.

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Bettina Dahl, Eirik Lien, and Åsa Lindberg-Sand

The aim of the Bologna Process is to make higher education systems across Europe more transparent. It is crucial for this purpose that confusion concerning the characteristics of the systems should be replaced by conformity. But, as we will show, conformity brought about at one level may create confusion at another. The curricular aspect of the Bologna Process focuses on a shift to outcome-based and student-centred programmes. Syllabi should now be based on intended learning outcomes (ILOs) and should be adjusted to general level descriptors for qualifications. However, the Bologna documents give no explicit recommendations about the use of grading scales. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the reforms of higher education induced by the Bologna process included a change of grading scales and referred to the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). Through these three case studies, we describe and analyse the political process and argumentation underpinning the decisions to change the grading scales in each country. This includes the problems, both experienced and perceived, with the old grading scales, the various national assessment traditions and the new grading scales. The purpose of the change was not the same in each country, but the ongoing adaptation to a seven-step grading scale was thought to ease the international recognition of the national grades, making mobility easier. Though a seven-step grading scale was implemented in both Danish and Norwegian higher education and also by an increasing number of Swedish higher education institutions, the translation of grades only works on a superficial level. The grading scales designed are fundamentally different as classification systems; they attach different numerical values to grades with identical labels and they relate differently to norm- and standards-referenced judgements of learning outcomes. The information condensed in similar grades from the three countries cannot be equated. The vision of simple transparency turns out to be an illusion.

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Gender, Leadership and Representative Democracy

The Differential Impacts of the Global Pandemic

Kim Rubenstein, Trish Bergin, and Pia Rowe

represent 70 percent of all health and social-services staff globally ( ILO 2020 ). These women will also require more resources, particularly for those who also assume primary responsibility for household work. These examples do not represent the full

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Narratives of Ambivalence

The Ethics of Vulnerability and Agency in Research with Girls in the Sex Trade

Alexandra Ricard-Guay and Myriam Denov

for prostitution, sex tourism, exotic dancing clubs, and using them in sex shows (public or private) as well as luring them on the internet ( Estes and Weiner 2001 ; International Labor Organization (ILO) 2008 ). The language used to refer to the

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Dudziro Nhengu

threat to national culture. WHO estimates that migrants’ health needs are inconsistently addressed globally, and for this reason, the International Labour Organization (ILO) recommends inclusion of migrants in national, regional, and global policies for

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Expat, Local, and Refugee

“Studying Up” the Global Division of Labor and Mobility in the Humanitarian Industry in Jordan

Reem Farah

the host and refugee communities. In a recent report, the International Labor Organization (ILO) perpetuates the narrative that “the Syrian refugee crisis affected the Jordanian labour market in terms of downward pressure on wages, increase in child

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Steve Kwok-Leung Chan

indirect means, including “accumulated debt, retention of identity papers or threats of denunciation to immigration authorities” ( ILO, 2014b ). Bonded labor is the most common form of forced labor when people fall victim to debt bondage. Most migrant

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Waves of Dispossession

The Conversion of Land and Labor in Bali’s Recent History

Anette Fagertun

vulnerability ( ILO 2013: 16 ). The informal economy refers to the flexibilization of labor policies and labor markets that create a new mode of employment characterized by precarious labor situations for workers, such as part-time work, casual or contract jobs

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Nationalism and Internationalism Reconciled

British Concepts for a New World Order during and after the World Wars

Antero Holmila and Pasi Ihalainen

International Labour Organization (ILO), designed, on the initiative of the Paris Peace Conference, on foundations provided by prewar international networks with the purpose of curtailing communism. 53 Labour internationalism had been viewed very negatively in