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The Emergence of the Bus Industry

Dutch Transport Policy during the Interwar Years

Ruud Filarski

During the interwar period, the emergence of the bus industry presented many governments with a dilemma: should they intervene in the market to establish a level playing field for fair competition between the buses and rail transport, should they protect the loss-making railways or should they take a laissez-faire approach to the developments?

At first glance, promoting fair competition or, as it was called during those days, a "co-ordination policy" seems relatively simple. The government could impose conditions on the bus industry, which regulated safety, quality, services, and allocation of the infrastructure costs in a similar way as the railways. However, an analysis of the developments in The Netherlands reveals a number of obstacles that complicated policy implementation.

Therefore, this article focuses on two questions: how did bus transport develop in The Netherlands? And what obstacles made it so difficult for the Dutch government to implement fair competition?

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Iterative Modernism

The Design Mode of Interwar Engineering in Belgium

Greet De Block and Bruno De Meulder

This article traces the implicit spatial project of Belgian engineers during the interwar period. By analyzing infrastructure planning and its inscribed spatial ideas as well as examining the hybrid modernity advocated by engineers and politicians, this article contributes to both urban and transport history.

Unlike colleagues in countries such as Germany, Italy and the United States, Belgian engineers were not convinced that highways offered a salutary new order to a nation traumatized by the First World War. On the contrary, the Ponts et Chaussées asserted that this new limited access road would tear apart the densely populated areas and the diverse regional identities in Belgium. In their opinion, only an integration of existing and new infrastructure could harmonize the historically fragmented and urbanized territory. Tirelessly, engineers produced infrastructure plans, strategically interweaving different transport systems, which had to result in an overall transformation of the territory to facilitate modern production and export logics.

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“Did You Teach Us to Do Otherwise?”

Young Women in the Tsukunft Youth Movement in Interwar Poland and Their Role Models

Magdalena Kozłowska

empowering and often radicalizing experience of young Tsukunft women during the interwar period as they learned from their female role models how to live, organize, rebel, resist, and fight. I argue that despite the scarcity of high-ranking female leaders

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The German Colonies in Die Weltgeschichte als Kolonialgeschichte

The Use of Filmic Techniques in Colonial Revisionism in the 1920s

Michael Annegarn-Gläß

Translator : Katherine Ebisch-Burton

always use the borders of 1914, as, incidentally, did school atlases of the interwar period. 20 Borders and their representation in maps have always been a political issue. With the exception of the colonies, the territories removed from Germany by the

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The Spectacular Traveling Woman

Australian and Canadian Visions of Women, Modernity, and Mobility between the Wars

Sarah Galletly

display their modernity and cultivate new social and cultural aspirations. This article builds upon Conor’s analyses of spectacle to consider how the female traveler was depicted in Australian and Canadian periodicals of the interwar period. Although

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Worldly Tastes

Mobility and the Geographical Imaginaries of Interwar Australian Magazines

Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich

, particularly as travel through the Panama Canal boosted Pacific traffic on routes to Europe. Contemporary writing in magazines reflected this outward gaze, yet literary histories of the interwar period have elided this narrative, preferring instead a history of

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Ambivalent Mobilities in the Pacific

“Savagery” and “Civilization” in the Australian Interwar Imaginary

Nicholas Halter

interwar period with a particular focus on the middlebrow imagination. I argue that travel literature often appealed to the middlebrow in content and style, and the Pacific Islands were a middle-brow setting. In doing so, I explore Australian

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Evelyn Adunka

Eisenstadt. Vienna in the Interwar Period Back in Vienna, in 1918 a Wiener Jüdisches Organisationskomitee was founded. It proposed and discussed religious reforms, amongst them the introduction of the organ in the Viennese community temples. The most

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Introduction

The Return of Transport Coordination

Gustav Sjöblom

The coordination of transport was heavily debated in the interwar period, as mechanized road traffic for the first time posed a serious challenge to the railways as the backbone of the transport system. The main issues of the interwar period bear resemblances with current challenges for transport policy, and historical studies may improve our understanding of contemporary transport coordination. This introduction sets the stage by discussing the concept of transport coordination and its historiography.

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An Indochinese Dominion

L'Effort indochinois and Autonomy in a Global Context, 1936–1939

M. Kathryn Edwards

autonomy in the interwar period. The Popular Front and the Colonies The Popular Front is renowned for its progressive legislation in metropolitan France; its colonial agenda is somewhat less well known. The new Socialist Minister of Colonies, Marius