The influence of the pro-Israel lobby in US foreign policymaking toward the Middle East has been a subject of great interest and fierce controversy in recent years. Yet, despite being the object of a massive amount of critical scrutiny, the pro-Israel lobby remains poorly understood. All too often it is depicted as a highly organized, cohesive political actor pursuing an agenda in line with, and even determined by, Israel's right-wing Likud party. By undertaking a detailed empirical survey of the pro-Israel community in the United States, this article shows that such a view is grossly inaccurate. The pro-Israel community is neither monolithic nor a unitary actor. It is fragmented into a number of different groups, many of which disagree sharply over their understanding of Israel's real interests. In lobbying the US government for what they believe is in Israel's interests, therefore, the pro-Israel community rarely, if ever, speaks with a single voice.
Pro-Israel advocacy in the United States has come under a great deal of critical scrutiny in recent years. Denunciations of the excessive influence of the “Israel Lobby” on US foreign policymaking toward the Middle East, allegations of espionage leveled against high-ranking employees of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), and arguments over whether pro-Israel organizations adequately represent American Jewish opinion have all served to put the pro-Israel lobby in the public spotlight.
On Colin Shindler’s Respublica Hebraeorum
Arie M. Dubnov
contemporary political landscape in Israel (chap. 19)—end in a deadlock. These are notes from the field, which Shindler may have included in his book to arm those who will continue to defend Israel on campuses. But his commitment to hasbara (Israel advocacy
Strategies and Struggles in Wars of Position
Ian S. Lustick and Nathaniel Shils
“embracing Gramsci's ideas” ( Lewin 2019 ). 1 This exhortation to learn from BDS about how to fight against it became a regular theme within a panoply of Israel advocacy polemicists, foundations, strategists, NGOs, think-tank analysts, Israeli government
. Since 2010 for example, the EUPJ has donated about 20,000 euros for a number of special projects benefiting communities or individuals. This assistance was crucial for the organization of an Israel Advocacy Seminar in Paris and also enabled individuals