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The Guilty Brelfie

Censored Breastfeeding Selfies Reclaim Public Space

Mari E. Ramler

Breastfeeding mothers and their babies are simultaneously in the public sphere and hidden from public view. Although social media has the potential to normalize attitudes toward breastfeeding by increasing visibility, Facebook and Instagram maintain an unpredictable censorship policy toward “brelfies”—female breast selfies—which has undermined progress. Combining Iris Marion Young’s “undecidability” of the breasted experience with Brett Lunceford’s rhetoric of nakedness, this article investigates what breastfeeding mothers communicate online via digital images when they expose their breasts. By deconstructing controversial case studies, this article concludes that brelfies have increased breastfeeding’s accessibility and acceptability in the material world.

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Hennie Lötter

What is justice all about? What is the scope of the concept of justice? What are the issues that can legitimately be discussed and evaluated in terms of justice? In her book Justice and the Politics of Difference, Iris Marion Young challenges the theory of justice developed by John Rawls and responded to by many political theorists in the philosophical debate generated by Rawls’s book, A Theory of Justice (1971). Young objects to the emphasis on matters of distributive justice and finds the use of the metaphor of distribution too restrictive when applied to nondistributive issues. She wants to widen the scope of the concept of justice to include topics like decision making, culture, and the division of labour.

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Stephen Elstub and Jean-Paul Gagnon

Editors' introduction to the interview: Stephen Elstub articulates that deliberative democracy, as a theory, can be seen as having gone through various distinct generations. The first generation was a period where the normative values and the justifications for deliberative democracy were set out. This prompted criticism from difference democrats who saw the exclusion of other forms of communication by the reification of reason in deliberation as a serious shortcoming of the theory. This in part prompted the growth of the second generation of deliberative democracy, which began to focus more on the theory's operability. These theorizations, from the mostly 1990s and early 2000s, have led to the third generation of the theory—one embodied by the empirical turn. Elstub uses this genealogy as a foundation from which to argue that the current focus of deliberative democracy is on implementing deliberative systems rather than only deliberative institutions and this could potentially represent a fourth generation of deliberative democracy.

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Citizenship Inc.

Negotiating Civic Spaces in Post-urban America

Paul Edwards

This article builds on theories of space to suggest that the spatialised public-private dichotomy may be redundant and that civic space has become a more useful language of the success, or otherwise, of publicly accessible spaces. Taking my impetus from the seemingly hyper-privatised space of the shopping mall I argue that private space can be civic space if it encourages, using theorist Iris Marion Young's terminology, 'social justice', and the mixing of diverse peoples and uses. Alongside the shopping mall, I examine the much-hyped Disney town of Celebration in Florida to illustrate how distinctions between public and private space have become increasingly blurred, before concluding with a discussion of recent efforts on both sides of the Atlantic to produce effective design approaches in creating civic space. The approach in this article is more pragmatic than theoretical given the minimal theorising about 'civic space' to date. Although I provide a brief overview of the established literature, most still relies on the 1960s writings of French geographer, Henri Lefebvre, who called for space that 'signifies the right of citizens and city dwellers, and of groups they (on the basis of social relations) constitute, to appear on all networks and circuits of communication, information and exchange.'

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Contemporary “Structures” of Racism

A Sartrean Contribution to Resisting Racial Injustice

Justin I. Fugo

Injustice: Oppression, Domination, and the Need for ‘Concrete Morality’ Iris Marion Young's formulation of injustice is motivated by the regularity with which contemporary moral and political theory equates justice with a ‘just distribution’, particularly

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William R. Caspary

social movements for the democratic process is inescapable, but this recognition of the role of direct action is not exclusive to participatory democrats. Iris Marion Young, for instance, advocates a democratic “politics of protest, boycott, [and

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Julia Eckert and Laura Knöpfel

of cunning’ in order to render themselves unaccountable. We need to recognize misrepresentations of weakness and move beyond state or corporate self-descriptions of their positionality within global entanglements. 8 Iris Marion Young already

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Sectarianism and Recognition in Iraq

From Consociationalism to Deliberation?

Nicolas Pirsoul

/justification is downplayed in favor of a top-down legalism that can be considered by some as paternalist and as having a negative impact on marginalized groups’ agency ( Brown 1995 ; Ford 2002 ). Authors such as Charles Taylor and Iris Marion Young ( Young 2011

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Gustavo H. Dalaqua

’, Cadernos do GIPE-CIT 40 : 155 – 166 . Fung , A. 2005 . ‘ Deliberation's Darker Side: Six Questions for Iris Marion Young and Jane Mansbridge ’, National Civic Review 93 ( 4 ): 47 – 54 . doi: 10.1002/ncr.70 . 10.1002/ncr.70 Green , J. E

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A Negative Theory of Justice

Towards a Critical Theory of Power Relations

Leonard Mazzone

social injustices produced by different kinds of private and institutional physical oppression and systemic, simple, and complex domination; as argued by Iris Marion Young, the social analysis of power relations has to diagnose and criticise different