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Adriana Streifer

Sullivan explains, ‘trust and reputation were put before economic individualism’. 3 Though far removed from Mediterranean renegades and Jews, the concerns of domestic English merchants highlight the precariousness of commercial systems that rely on good

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Lionel Blue

I Write this article for those Jews who expect their Rabbis to tell the truth as they see it as honestly as they can. Truth is not an easy thing to see as the pressures of modern life tend to make us polish an ‘image’, curry favours from a

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Karine Michel

Among religious Jews, hair is described as an application of religious law. This article proposes to study the place of hair in Jewish life, based on texts and social expressions. Hair appears to be linked to every important and ritual moment of life, symbolising the movement from one social status to another as a rite of passage. However, based on age and sex, and also on an analysis of different religious tendencies, hair reveals itself as more relevant in terms of social than religious use.

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Rachel Adler

heterosexual. For a long time, the conversationalists failed to notice that there were people whispering on the periphery: women both straight and lesbian, gay men, bisexuals, transsexuals, Jews of colour, differently abled Jews. Only in the last forty years

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Jonathan Elukin

After more than four centuries, Shylock remains an enigma. He can be seen, of course, as the incarnation of traditional Christian ideas about the viciousness of Jews and Judaism. However, he also comes to life as the tormented victim of

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Jews and Christians in Vichy France

New and Renewed Perspectives

Michael Sutton

The publication of new research relating to the positions taken by Jews and Christians in Vichy France continues apace, as witness the selection here of a large number of works published since 2012. * 1 In considering them, we have limited

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Tony Bayfield

Jew be a Jew, upright and unafraid; only in Israel do Jews have a future. Make aliyah for the sake of your family and its future; fail to make aliyah and your children will assimilate – that is, if the goyim will ever allow them to deny their Jewish

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The Image of Jews as Constructed by Lexical Items

Translations of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice as a Case in Point

Xiu Gao

missionary, and Shiqiu Liang, a translator and educator, whose translations are the topic of the present article, reconstructed the image of Shylock or Jews in general in different ways, as the two translators had different backgrounds. In order to analyse

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Jews of All Trades

Jews and Their Professions in Early Modern English Travel Writing

Eva Johanna Holmberg

This article explores early modern English travelers' representations of and responses to the trades and professions of contemporary Jews. Professions were important social markers for early modern people, and the way Jews and their “professions” were commented on opens a novel perspective on the ways early modern Englishmen encountered Jews both in Europe and outside it. Observing foreign professions and trades was expected of travelers, since it revealed important aspects of foreign societies, their prosperity, civility, and treatment of their subjects. Portrayals of Jewish professionals provided a space to explore the customs and way of life of Jews, to present arguments for and against admitting Jews, or indeed any other strangers, to reside in England and elsewhere. In addition, these texts educated readers about foreign trades and professions and mapped the fluctuations of trade and commerce in foreign countries. This provided English readers of travel literature with conflicting information about the harms and benefits of Jewish presence, accusations of the innate greediness of Jews, but also views about their “natural” business instincts.

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Who Is a Jew

Halacha, Laws and Politics

Uri Regev

There is no question in my mind that Rabbi Lilienthal has made a lasting impact on our world Progressive Jewish family in the area of conversion, both in addressing the unique challenge facing you here in Holland, in the leadership he has demonstrated in the European Beit Din in helping forge common practices and policies regarding conversion in Europe, and in the support he has been providing for our Eastern European and Russian communities. It is therefore highly appropriate for us to deliberate on the question of 'Who is a Jew?' at this time, as it has occupied a significant part of David's contribution to the Jewish People and the Reform Movement over the years. Moreover, I cannot think of any other issue that has had such an impact on Israel-Diaspora relations and provided ground for contention and divisiveness than the 'Who is a Jew' question. Clearly, it is not because of the relatively small number of converts who have actually made aliyah, but rather, because of its symbolic significance. Through the 'Who is a Jew?' definition, Israel is declaring its own perception of what is legitimate and what is not throughout the world.