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Affirmative action and political economic transformations

Secondary education, indigenous people, and the state in Jharkhand, India

Rob Higham and Alpa Shah

This article proposes an anthropology of affirmative action that is embedded in analysis of the wider political economic transformations in which affirmative action policies emerge. It is argued that this historically situated approach enables analyses of the relative effects of affirmative action on processes of socio economic marginalization. The focus of the article is on the combination of preferential treatment policies and the provision of education as a state-led response to historical marginalization. These policies are explored in the context of adivasis (tribal or indigenous peoples) in Jharkhand, India. The analysis shows how, despite improvement in absolute educational outcomes among adivasis as a result of these policies, inequalities in relative outcomes are being reproduced and are widening. This is explained in part by market-led gains within the private edu cation sector for more advantaged sections of society that outweigh the predom inately state-led improvements for adivasis. The analysis demonstrates the limitations of contemporary affirmative action in affecting the relative position of socioeconomically marginalized groups in contexts where the state is losing some of its universal features and ambition.

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Whose Reality Counts?

Emergent Dalitbahujan Anthropologists

Reddi Sekhara Yalamala

; Ilaiah 1989 ; Meher 2009 ; Shah and Shneiderman 2013 ). Mass inter-caste and inter-tribal mobilisation has led to stopping a growing number of state–industry projects in the tribal belt of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Northern Andhra Pradesh

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“Real, practical emancipation”?

Subaltern politics and insurgent citizenship in contemporary India

Alf Gunvald Nilsen

sacral polity that Shah (2010) finds to be significant to the political lifeworlds of Munda Adivasis in Jharkhand, Bhil activists came to think of themselves not so much in terms of the citizen as a bearer of universal rights but more in terms of the

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Beyond citizenship

Adivasi and Dalit political pathways in India

Nicolas Jaoul and Alpa Shah

state: Indigenous politics, environmentalism, and insurgency in Jharkhand, India . Durham, NC : Duke University Press . 10.1215/9780822392934 Shah , Alpa . 2013a . The tensions over liberal citizenship in a Marxist revolutionary situation: The

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“I Am Trying” to Perform Like an Ideal Boy

The Construction of Boyhood through Corporal Punishment and Educational Discipline in Taare Zameen Par

Natasha Anand

.” 29 August . http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/telangana/chintu-victim-of-corporal-punishment-dies/article7592996.ece (accessed 20 August 2015 ). The Indian Express . 2014 . “ Teacher Beats Class One Student to Death, Jharkhand Reports It

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Nagas as a ‘Society against Voting?’

Consensus-Building, Party-less Politics and a Culturalist Critique of Elections in Northeast India

Jelle J. P. Wouters

( 11 ): 424 . Shah , A. 2010 . In the Shadows of the State: Indigenous Politics, Environmentalism, and Insurgency in Jharkhand India . Durham, NC : Duke University Press . Singh , C. 2004 . Naga Politics: A Critical Account . New Delhi

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Emancipation as social equality

Subaltern politics in contemporary India

Indrajit Roy

, CT : Yale University Press . Shah , Alpa . 2010 . In the shadows of the state: Indigenous politics, environmentalism and Insurgency in Jharkhand, India . Durham, NC : Duke University Press . Tilly , Charles . 1999 . Durable inequality

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The Many Faces of the State

Living in Peace and Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

Nasir Uddin and Eva Gerharz

: Democracy, Politics, and the State in India’s Jharkhand .” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 13 ( 1 ): 129 – 145 . 10.1111/j.1467-9655.2007.00417.x Sharma , Aradhana , and Akhil Gupta , eds. 2006 . The Anthropology of the State: A