In the United States of America, use of DNA samples in criminal investigation and of genetic ancestry tests in 'personalised medicine', 'pharmacogenetics' and for personal consumption has grown exponentially. Moreover, use of such technologies is visible in the public sphere. In South Africa, DNA sampling for ancestry testing is the most publicly visible application of these technologies. This work has shifted constructions of 'KhoiSan' communities from yesterday's 'missing evolutionary link' to today's 'Edenic origin of humankind'. I question human biogenetics as a home for meanings of history, humanity and belonging. To this end, I read selected genetic genealogical studies of communities considered 'KhoiSan', 'Coloured' and 'Lemba' in South Africa against concerns raised in recent literature about the use of such studies in the United States of America. I ask why bio-centric conceptions of 'race', identity and 'the human' remain so resilient. To grapple with this question, I draw on Sylvia Wynter's (2001; 2003) adaptation of Frantz Fanon's (1986) concept of 'sociogeny' into 'the sociogenic principle'. I close by suggesting the code for what it means to be human is best located in the 'word' rather than the human genome.
A Renewed Biological Imaginary of 'Race', Place and Identification
Wind and Weather in Zulu Zionist Sensorial Experiences
picked up (cf. Ngubane 1977: 24–29) . These are the tracks ( umkhondo ) that dogs detect while hunting, and this cultural belief is shared with the neighboring Khoisan (cf. Low 2007: S75 ). Disease is mostly spoken of as umnyama (darkness) and is
Bret Gustafson, Francesco Carpanini, Martin Kalb, James Giblin, Sarah Besky, Patrick Gallagher, Andrew Curley, Jen Gobby, and Ryan Anderson
coloured subjectivities, and traditional social science notions of cultural heritage and indigeneity as a one-to-one historical relationship between people and place” (64). While white farmers (and black Khoisan people) make claims to the region based on
Thoughts and Practices toward Non-human Animals among the G|ui Hunter-Gatherers
express my heartfelt thanks to many G|ui and G||ana friends for their generosity and patience. References Barnard , Alan . 1992 . Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa: A Comparative Ethnography of the Khoisan Peoples . Cambridge : Cambridge