socio-economic development of their home countries. This article investigates the “development qua AVR” rationale by describing the real-life AVR experiences of four women from Kosovo and juxtaposing them with the claim that assisted return can foster
Rhetoric and reality within the framework of development
Jeremy F. Walton and Piro Rexhepi
specific successor nation-states: Kosovo, Macedonia, Croatia, and Slovenia. We have chosen this constellation of post-Yugoslav states strategically. 2 In general, treatments of Islam in the western Balkans privilege Bosnia, and Sarajevo in particular
This article explores history teaching in Albania, with particular emphasis on educational and methodological aspects of new history textbooks published after the liberalization of the school textbook market in 2008. National history textbooks serve as a basis for the assessment of changing educational principles and methodologies in history teaching in terms of five qualitative factors: educational aims, teaching techniques and methodologies, historical narratives, visual materials, and sources. The article thus assesses the degree to which textbooks fulfill their educational function and help to put learning theories into practice. The author also places the revision and reevaluation of national history textbooks in Albania in context by comparing them to the progress of Kosovo's recently established educational system.
Jaume Castan Pinos
English abstract: During the 1990s a deterritorialization emerged, a "borderless world" trend that tended to dismiss borders as increasingly irrelevant to the human experience. Thus, the idea that borders were becoming increasingly fuzzy became popular in political discourse, particularly in Europe. This article challenges this vision, which, despite losing importance in academic circles, has now been reproduced in popular culture, arguing that borders have not been removed and that territoriality still plays a crucial role at the beginning of the 21st century. This claim will be justified with evidence stemming from different policies, dynamics, and discourses. By analyzing the importance of territoriality from three different angles (policy, territorial disputes, and discourses), the article aims to demonstrate that borders and their "barrier" function are likely to continue being significant in the foreseeable future.
Spanish abstract: Durante la década de 1990 surgió una tendencia de de-territorialización, o "mundo sin fronteras", que pretendía descartar las fronteras como algo cada vez más irrelevante para la experiencia humana. Así, se hizo popular en el discurso político la idea de que las fronteras eran cada vez más borrosas, particularmente en Europa. Este artículo cuestiona esta visión que, a pesar de perder importancia en círculos académicos, ha sobrevivido en la cultura popular, argumentando que las fronteras no están desapareciendo y que la territorialidad sigue desempeñando un papel crucial a principios del siglo XXI. Dicho argumento será justificado con evidencias procedentes de diferentes políticas, dinámicas y discursos. Mediante el análisis de la importancia de las fronteras desde tres ángulos distintos (políticas de securitización, disputas territoriales y discursos), el artículo pretende demostrar que las fronteras y su función de barrera, probablemente continuaran siendo importantes en el futuro previsible.
French abstract: Au cours des années 1990, émerge une certaine tendance à la déterritorialisation et à l'aspiration d'un «monde sans frontières», fondée sur le rejet des frontières que l'on jugeait incompatibles avec l'expérience humaine. Ainsi, l'idée selon laquelle les frontières devenaient de plus en plus floues s'est popularisée dans le discours politique, en particulier en Europe. Cet article remet en question cette vision qui, bien qu'ayant perdu de son importance dans la sphère académique a été reproduite dans la culture populaire, en faisant valoir l'idée que les frontières n'ont pas été dissoutes et que la territorialité joue encore un rôle crucial au début du 21e siècle. Cette affirmation sera soutenue par des preuves provenant de différentes politiques, dynamiques et discours. En analysant l'importance de la territorialité sous les trois angles différents que sont la politique, les querelles territoriales et les discours, l'article vise à démontrer que les frontières, dans leur fonction «barrière», continueront à jouer un rôle significatif dans l'avenir.
Ger Duijzings, Religion and the politics of identity in Kosovo, London: Hurst, 2000, xv + 238 pp., ISBN 0231120990.
Between customary law and state law
This article considers factors that have effected and influenced the continuity of the customary law named the Kanun of Lek Dukagjini in some areas of Albanian and Kosovo. It draws on ethnographic data on the border area villages between Albania and Kosovo to discuss the dynamics and tensions that are created between state and non-state law vis-à-vis justice in highly complex and problematic social, economic, and political contexts. Customary law and state law seem to be two conflicting legal ideologies. However, the article considers everyday settings where people make use of both legal systems in order to regulate matters especially related to property issues. The new legal realities create around property ownership imply new type of relations vis-à-vis family and kinship structures which oscillate between the two systems.
M. Anne Sa'adah
Joschka Fischer (b. 1948), Germany’s foreign minister and for several
years one of the country’s most popular politicians, is a man of
the moment, of consequence both domestically and beyond his
country’s borders. Nationally prominent as leader of the “realo” faction
of the Greens, he was instrumental in turning a protest movement
into the partner in power of the Social Democratic Party
(SPD). During the Kosovo crisis, he was a key figure in securing
German participation in the NATO intervention. He has played an
influential role in the unfolding debate about institutional reform
within the European Union. During the latest round of Israeli-Palestinian
violence, he has actively tried to bring the parties to the table.
Interrogating Cases on Refugees in Sweden
In this essay, two cases are constructed in order to highlight the seemingly distinct yet intertwined problems of how realities shape the construction of a case and how the constitution of a field in time and space, as well as experiences of fieldwork, contribute to the formation of a case. The ethnographic material described concerns two different social realities of Kosovo Albanian refugees in Sweden and their confrontation with Swedish bureaucracy and the uncertainties to which this gives rise, both for the refugees and the anthropologist. A main aim is to explore the blurred line between the apt illustration and the extended case in relation to processes of bureaucratization and, in turn, the implications such processes have for the way in which the field is circumscribed and conceptualized.
Class and "identity dilemmas" in contemporary Serbia
Following the Belgrade riots after Kosovo's proclamation of independence in February 2008 and the rise of the nationalist Serbian Radical Party in elections since 2001, several analysts have portrayed Serbia as a highly divided and confused nation unable to choose between a European, urban, and cosmopolitan democrat identity and a patriarchal, peasant, and collectivists nationalist one. This article historicizes this widespread culture-talk by ethnographically grounding it in particular processes that constitute Serbia's trajectory toward free market economy and liberal democracy. The concept of class as an analytical tool appears accurate in trying to understand people's biographies and political choices. By deconstructing popular cultural stereotypes of Radikali, the article argues that nationalism provides a framework that resonates most with the material and symbolic needs of a wide range of population. In the absence of a strong institutionalized left, the political choices of "nationalism's supporters" are based more on rational choice than on identity quests and strategies of manipulation.
The Construction of a Shrine in Postwar Kosovo
Anna Di Lellio and Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers
The site of an infamous Serb massacre of a militant Albanian extended family in March 1998 has become the most prominent sacred shrine in postwar Kosovo attracting thousands of Albanian visitors. Inspired by Smith's (2003) 'territorialization of memory' as a sacred source of national identity and MacCannell's (1999 ) five-stage model of 'sight sacralization', this article traces the site's sacred memorial topography, its construction process, its social and material reproductions, and adds a sixth stage to the interpretation - the 'political reproduction'. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, the commemorative literature emanating from this shrine and on numerous interviews with core protagonists (including former guerrilla) and visitors, the article explores the ways in which the religious themes of martyrdom and sacrifice, as well as traditionalist ideals of solidarity and militancy, are embodied at the site and give sense to a nation-wide celebration of ethno-national resistance, solidarity and independence.