This article examines the relations and interaction between Kuwait and Iran before the export of oil from Kuwait in 1946. It begins with a short account of the establishment of Kuwait as a small maritime community, the ramifications of its location amongst its three large neighbours, and Iran's role in helping Kuwait to establish its roots as a seafaring community by providing its earlier inhabitants with basic food requirements. The article then goes on to review several aspects of the interaction between Iran and Kuwait and the influence that these communities have had on one another. It concludes by emphasising that the relationship of mutuality between the two countries must continue in this age of oil and globalisation for the benefit of both peoples.
Mutual Contact in the Pre-oil Era
Yacoub Y. Al-Hijji
Yagoub Yousif Al-Kandari
The rate of consanguineous marriage in Kuwait is considered to be high. Several research studies have shown that marriage among relatives is one of the major factors leading to health problems because it increases homozygosis. This article deals with both cultural and physical aspects by examining the health consequences of consanguineous marriages in Kuwait. Variables such as reproductive wastage, health problems in the offspring and infant mortality are included and measured in relation to other socio-cultural variables. Cultural variables such as the respondents' roots (Bedouin and non-Bedouin) and beliefs (Muslim Sunni and Muslim Shi'a) are also examined. The results show that there is no significant association between consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the rate of abortion or the mortality of infants and children up to five years old. Finally, the data reveal significant differences between the genetic and genetic-environmental diseases in consanguineous couples' offspring and those of non-consanguineous couples. Since some of these findings contradict those of other studies, more research is needed.
Expatriates, Stateless Peoples and the Politics of Citizenship
In this article I examine why Kuwait and other migrant-receiving countries in the Persian Gulf have failed to enfranchise migrant workers and their descendants through citizenship. I contend that the increasing exclusion of expatriate workers from these societies can be understood in comparison with the disenfranchisement of the stateless populations to which these governments are host. I argue that nationalist narratives that portray these groups as threatening to the host societies have been extremely significant in creating an atmosphere of increasing isolation and exclusion for both expatriates and stateless peoples. I conclude by examining what the Kuwaiti case tells us about how notions of membership and belonging develop and the significant role of historic and political circumstances in shaping these notions.
Hadrami Migratory Experience in Kuwait
Abdullah M. Alajmi
Studies of immigrants in Kuwait focus on structural aspects overlooking sociohistorical elements and meso-level relationships that develop through migration. This ethnography shows that the immigrant's perspective and the history of the relationship between the receiving society and the immigrant community are both essential for establishing broader and thicker analyses of reality. It argues that because Hadramis and Kuwaiti sponsors were historically linked in personal exchanges originating in the Kuwaiti domestic realm, the meaning and practices of sponsorship comprise a unique migratory and work experience. Normally the immigrant–sponsor relationship is conveyed in terms of pseudokinship, yet references to moral debts and dependency reveal forms of exploitation and dominance. Hadrami–Kuwaiti relationships do not produce significant economic outcomes for the sponsor. Rather, Hadramis are symbolically valued within local hierarchies. This symbolic value has sustained a solid Hadrami presence in Kuwait and secured an income for retiring immigrants at home.
Why Pro-democracy Activity Was Avoided in Gulf Nations during the Arab Spring
Charles Mitchell, Juliet Dinkha, and Aya Abdulhamid
, Yemen, Syria, and Algeria and how the climate and use of government and socioeconomic policies and reactive corrective measures precluded the large-scale revolts and revolutionary activity in Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia
Shahnaz Nadjmabadi, Fakhri Haghani, Soheila Shahshahani, and Marie Percot
Abdulmoati, Dr. Yousuf (2004), Kuwait in the Eyes of Others: Feathers and Characteris- tics of Kuwaiti’s Society before Oil (Kuwait: Centre for Research and Studies on Kuwait). 158 pages, black-and-white and colour pictures, index, Arabic and foreign references.
Al-Ayoub, Ayoub Hussein (2002), e Kuwaiti Heritage in the Paintings of Ayoub Hus- sein Al-Ayoub (Kuwait: Centre for Research and Studies on Kuwait). 622 pages, hard cover, mostly colour photographs of paintings with descriptions, index, introduction and preface.
Al-Hijji, Ya’qub Yusuf (2001), e Art of Dhow-building in Kuwait (Kuwait: Centre for Research and Studies on Kuwait, in association with e London Centre of Arab Studies). 164 pages, hard cover, drawings, colour and black-and-white pictures, Kuwaiti nautical glossary, bibliography and index.
Al-Hajji, Ya’qub Y. (2001), Old Kuwait: Memories in Photographs (Kuwait: Centre for Research and Studies on Kuwait). 255 pages, black-and-white pictures with descriptions in Arabic and English.
Tehran Short Film Festival, 17–22 November 2004
‘Anthropological Perspectives on Iran: The New Millennium and Beyond’, 30 September–2 October 2004, Frankfurt, Germany
‘Gendering Urban Space in the Middle East, South Asia and Africa’ Workshop, 26–27 February 2005, Cairo, Egypt
‘Iran on the Move: Social Transformation in the Islamic Republic’, 27–28 April 2005, Leiden, Netherlands
Double Conference of the Commission on Urban Anthropology of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES), 19–21 December 2005, Tehran, Iran
Fabrizio Speziale, Mohammad Shahbazi, Soheila Shahshahani, Maryam Roshanfekr, Shahnaz Nadjmabadi, and Maria Esther Esteban Torné
Rūstā’ī, Moh.sen (1382/2003–2004), Tārīkh-e t.ebb va t.ebābat dar Irān (az ‘ahd-e qājār tā pāyān-e ‘as.r-e Rez.ā Shāh) be ravāyat-e asnād [History of Medicine and Medical Practice in Iran (from the Qajar Epoch until the End of Rez. ā Shāh’s Age) According to the Narrative of Official Documents] (Tehran: Sāzmān-e asnād va ketābkhāne-ye Mellī-ye Jomhūrī-ye Islāmī-ye Irān). Vol. 1, pages ccclxi + 660. Vol. 2, pages xv + 911.
Naficy, Abutorab (2000), The Pulse of Life at the Crossroad of the Traditional and Modern Medicine of Iran [Nabz-e hayat dar gozar-e tibb-e sonnati va tibb-e nuvin Iran]: Biographical and Medical Writings of Dr Abutorab Naficy (Isfahan, Iran: Naqsh-e Khurshid Publication). 459 pages + 6 pages of pictures at the end.
Al-Sabah, Altaf Salem Al-Ali (2006), Ibjad – Ornate Tent Dividers and Weavings of the Kuwait Desert (Kuwait: Al Sadu House). 85 pages, glossary of Arabic terms, black-and-white and colour photographs, index.
The first conference of the Union for Short Filmmakers of Islamic Countries (USFIC), 20–25 August 2007, Tehran, Iran
Congress for the Seventieth Year of Anthropology in Iran, 18–21 February 2007, Anthropological Research Centre for ICHO, Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
Second International Congress of Biological and Cultural Anthropology, 26–28 October 2007, Monastir, Tunisia
Regulating Migrant Women's Sexualities in the Persian Gulf
This article looks at the confluence of love, labour and the law by focusing on the regulation of migrant women's sexualities in the Gulf Coast Cooperation countries of the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. Migrant women increasingly comprise the majority of migrants to the region as the demand for intimate labour in the Persian Gulf is on the rise. But migrant women who become pregnant while in the Persian Gulf are immediately imprisoned and charged with the crime of zina. These women give birth while incarcerated and spend up to a year with their babies in prison. They are then forcibly separated from their children when they are deported, rendering the children stateless in the host country. Migrant women who are often brought to the Persian Gulf to perform (re)productive labour are seen as immoral if they engage in sexual activities during their time in the Persian Gulf (and this is written into their contracts), and thus are seen as unfit to parent their own children. Some migrant women have recently been protesting these laws by refusing and fighting deportation without their children. This article contrasts discourses about migrant women's sexuality and legal analysis with the lived experiences of selected migrant women and their children through ethnographic research conducted in Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City between 2008 and 2014.
Demography, Identity and the Road to Equitable Policies
In 2005, the nations of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC), which consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, housed over 12 million international migrants. Employed mainly within the service and construction industries, these foreign workers have become a demographic majority in some GCC countries, creating an urgent need for more progressive immigration and equitable integration policies. This article provides an overview of migration to the region, situating it within the larger global emigration/immigration context. By focusing on the various stages of migration and the economic role played by migrants, the article argues for policies that protect the economic, social and political rights of labour migrants. It concludes with recommendations that consider conditions in both the GCC and migrants' countries of origin.
land. Hala Alyan is a Palestinian-American novelist and poet who lives in Manhattan. She was born in the United States, grew up in various places, including Kuwait, Texas, Oklahoma and Lebanon. She got her BA from the American University in Lebanon